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BIO 120 Chapter 8


Metabolism- the totality of an organism’s chemical reaction
Metabolic pathway- begins with a specific molecule, altered through a series of steps each with a different enzyme to catalyze the reaction, end result is a new product
Anabolic pathway- consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones
Catabolic pathway- Breaking down complex molecules to simpler ones
Endergonic- absorbs free energy, positive delta G, anabolic pathway
Exergonic- release of free energy, negative delta G, spontaneous, catabolic pathway
Spontaneous- energetically favorable
Kinetic energy- energy of motion
Thermal energy- kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
Heat- thermal energy in transfer from one object to another
Potential energy- energy that matter possesses because of its position or structure
Chemical energy- the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
Energy- the capacity to cause change
Thermodynamics- the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
First law of thermodynamics- energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed
Second law of thermodynamics- every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
Entropy- a measure of disorder or randomness
Free energy change- the portions of a systems energy that can perform work
Gravitational motion- objects move spontaneously from a higher altitude to a lower one
Diffusion- molecules in a drop of dye diffuse until they are randomly dispersed
Energy coupling- the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
ATP- adenosine triphosphate, energy
ATP cycle- energy released by breakdown reactions in the cell is used to phosphorylate ADP, regenerating ATP. Chemical potential energy stored in ATP drives cellular work.
Enzyme- macromolecule that acts as a catalyst
Catalyst- a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Activation energy- initial investment of energy required to start a reaction
Substrate- the reactant an enzyme acts on
Enzyme-substrate complex- When the enzyme binds to its substrate
Active site- the restricted region of the enzyme the substrate binds to
Competitive inhibition- blocks substrate from entering competitive site
Noncompetitive inhibition- alters the shape of the enzyme so the substrate doesn’t fit and cannot bind
Created by: mr_spangler