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BIO 120 Chapter 6

Tour of the Cell

TermDefinition
Plasma membrane structure- bilayer of phospholipids, embedded proteins, hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails
Plasma membrane function- allows passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste
Chloroplast structure- double membrane, intermembrane space, thylakoid, granum, stroma
Intermembrane space- space in between two membranes
Thylakoid- flattened interconnected sacs
Granum- stacks of thylakoid
Stroma- liquid outside of thylakoid, contains chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
Chloroplast function- photosynthetic production of sugar, converts light energy into chemical energy
RER Structure- ribosome studded cisternae, ER Lumen
Cisternae- network of membranous tubules and sacs
RER Function- creates secretory proteins, membrane factory of cell, synthesize insulin (pancreatic cells)
SER structure- cisternae lacking ribosomes
SER function- synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, storage of calcium ions
Lysosome Structure- membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes, protect cell from enzyme leakage
Lysosome function- digest food, break down damaged organelles, break down waste
Ribosomes structure- complexes made of ribosomal RNA and proteins, large and small subunit
Free ribosome- suspended in cytosol
Bound ribosome- attached to outside of RER or nuclear envelope
Ribosome function- carry out protein synthesis
Golgi apparatus structure- cisternae with a cis-trans face
Cis face- near ER, receives transport vehicles
Trans face- gives rise to vesicles that pinch off and travel to other sites
Golgi apparatus function- Shipping and receiving center of cell
Central vacuole structure- large vesicle derived from ER and Golgi filled with cell sap
Cell sap- main repository of or inorganic ions
Central vacuole function- large part of growth, absorbs water and enlarges
Endomembrane system- structure and function of Golgi, SER, RER, plasma membrane, and lysosomes
Mitochondria structure- smooth outer membrane, intermembrane space, rough inner membrane that contains important proteins and enzymes, matrix
Matrix- contains enzymes, mitochondrial DNA, ribosomes
Mitochondria function- site of cellular respiration
Cytoskeleton structure- network of fibers extending through cytoplasm, microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
Microtubules- hollow tubes that support cell shape, chromosome movement, organelle movement, and resist compression, cell motility
Microfilaments- two intertwined strands of actin, tension-bearing, support cell shape, muscle contraction, and changes in shape, cell motility
Intermediate Filaments- fibrous proteins coiled into cables that support cell shape, anchor nucleus and other organelles, and form nuclear lamina, cell motility
Cell motility- changes in cell location and movement of cell parts
Cytoskeleton function- organize structure and activities of the cell
Cell wall structure- microfiber made of polysaccharide cellulose
Cell wall function- protects cell, maintains shape, prevent excessive uptake of water
Nucleus Structure- nuclear envelope, double membrane lipid bilayer, nuclear lamina, chromatin
Nuclear lamina- netlike array of protein filaments that maintains shape of nucleus
Chromatin- complex of DNA and ribosomes that make up chromosomes
Nucleus function- contains genes, houses chromosomes, contains nucleoli, pores regulate entry and exit of material
Nucleolus structure- mass of densely stained granules and fibers adjoined part of chromatin
Nucleolus function- RNA synthesis, creation of ribosomes, shipping of ribosomes
Prokaryotic- bacteria and archaea
Eukaryotic- protists, plant, animal, fungi
Created by: mr_spangler