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Biology Chapter 10.4

Biology Chapter 10.4 Terms and Definitions

TermDefinition
RNA ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
transcription the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
translation the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
protein synthesis the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
ribose a 5 carbon sugar present in RNA
messenger RNA (mRNA) a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) ribosomal RNA, an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function
transfer RNA (tRNa) no definition
RNA Polymerase an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of DNA molecule as a template
promoter a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene
termination signal a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
genetic code the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
codon in DNA, a three nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or stop signal
anticodon a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
genome the complete, genetic material contained in an individual
Created by: conoverc20
 

 



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