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Fungi/protozoa

QuestionAnswer
Molds are also known as ____. They live in colonies formed from ____. They produce ___. Mycelia. They are colonies of intertwining branching hyphae. They produce spores.
Conidia are also known as asexual spores
Name the 4 fungi that are known for producing systemic disease. Think "Cowboy Fungus": He has spore bullets and Cocks his gun, then blasts, and hits lung, skin, meninges, liver. (Coccidio, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidio)
Macrophage filled with ____, Broad-based budding ____, Spherule filled with endospores ____, Budding yeast with "captin's wheel formation' 1) Histoplasmosis, 2) Blastomycosis, 3)Coccidiomycosis, 4) Paracoccidiomycosis
Locations of Histo, blasto, coccidio, paracoccidio Histo = West of Mississippi, Ohio river valley, Blasto= East of Miss and Southeastern US, Coccidio= Southwester US, San Joaquin Valley/desert, paraccidio = Rurual Latin America
Histo: Image "spleunking, cleaning chicken droppings"; found in bird/bat droppings
Blasto: Image "Landscaper"; soil/rotting wood
Coccidio:Image Immigrant
All fungi, like humans and ___ have ____. The particular one found in fungus is ____. mycoplasma, sterols, ergosterol
Symptoms possible for systemic disease of fungus: Pneumonia, meningitis, Liver, bone (granulomatous), skin
Systemic fungal diseases are similar to TB: (4) and are unlike TB in that (1) Similar: Inhaled (primary infection is in lungs), X-ray infiltrates may have granuloma with calcifications and can be cavitary, can disseminate, produce type IV; Not spread person-person
Blastomycoses is different than other sytsemic fungi in that It's the hardest to get and hardest to have; will have inflammatory lung disease
Blasto if disseminated goes to ___ Skin and bone: Warty lesions/crusted verrucous lesions
Coccidio if disseminated goes to ___ CNS/Bone (meningitis)
Histo, if disseminated Liver, spleen, bone marrow, skin
Paracoccidio is famous for Painful destructive ulcers in mouth mucosa
Desribe life pattern of systemic fungi Dimorphic; in soil= they are spores, in body they are yeast
Unlike others, ___ is a spherule in tissue Coccidio
Treatment for Systemic fungi: local___, Systemic ___- Local: Fluconazole, ketoconazole, Systemic: Amphotericin B for systemic infection
To culture systemic fungi, use Sabouraud
Tinea versicolor is caused by ____, and is found ____ Malassezie furfur, found in hot, humid weather
Tinea versicolor causes, and can be found with a Wood's lamp that reveals. To look at the organisms, use ____. It will reveal ___. hypopigmented/hyperpigmented patches on skin (trunk, shoulder, neck). Wood lamp reveals pale-yellow to blue-white fluorescence. Use KOH which will reveal "Spaghetti and meatball" appearence
Treat Tinea versicolor with ___ or ____ Miconazole, selenium sulfide
Tinea pedis, cruris, corporis, capitis are caused by ____. They Dimorphic/non-dimorphic, and look like ___ with ___ preparation. Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophytum. They are not dimorphic and have mold hyphae on KOH presentation.
Name the opportunistic fungal infections Think: "Cancer, Aids, CheMo, Recycled organs" for Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Mucor or Rhizopus.
Candida: Infections in healthy: 1)Yeast infections, 2)diaper rash, 3) thrush. immunocompromised (nenonates, steroids, diabetes, aids): esophagitis, disseminated, endocarditis
Treat candida with Nystatin (superficial), Amphotericin (serious systemic)
Pseudohyphae + budding yeasts at 20, Germ tubes at 37 Candida
45 angle branching septate hyphae, rare fruiting bodies. Dimrophic/non-dimorphic Asperigillis, not dimorphic
Aspergillus produce a toxin ___ that affects this organ ___ aflatoxin, affects the liver
Aspergillus produces three diseases Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (type I, type IV hypersensitivity reaction), lung cavity aspergilloma (fungus ball), Invasive aspergillosis (in people with TB),
narrow based unequal budding with capsular halo. Cryptococcus
Cryptococcus produces meningitis, cryptococcosis
Cryptococcus is found ___, Aspergillis is found___- Crypto: pigeon droppings, Aspergillis = rotting wood
Stains with india ink Crypto
Soap bubble leasions in brain Cryptococcus
Irregular nonseptate hyphae branching at wide angles (> 90 degrees) Mucormycosis
Mucormycosis is mostly found in what populations Diabetics/leukemia patients.
Pathophysiology of mucor proliferate in walls of blood vessels and cause infarction/necrosis of tissue
Black nasal discharge/ulceration/3rd nerve palsy Mucor/rhizopus
"cup/helmet shaped cells" Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP)
PCP causes Diffuse interstitial pneumonia
Methenamine silver stain of lung tissue PCP
Treatment for PCP TMP-SMX, pentamidine, dapsone
PCP patient presents Low ABGs out of proportion to clinical scenario
"Rose Gardener's disease" Sporothrix schenckii
Sporothrix schenckii: dimorphic/non-dimorphic. It causes ___ dimorphic. causes local pustule/ulcer with nodules along draining lymphatics, little systemic illness.
Treatment for Sporothrix schenckii itraconazole, potassioum iodide
Cigar-shaped budding yeast Sporothrix schenckii
Mucormycosis is mostly found in what populations Diabetics/leukemia patients.
Pathophysiology of mucor proliferate in walls of blood vessels and cause infarction/necrosis of tissue
Black nasal discharge/ulceration/3rd nerve palsy Mucor/rhizopus
"cup/helmet shaped cells" Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP)
PCP causes Diffuse interstitial pneumonia
Methenamine silver stain of lung tissue PCP
Treatment for PCP TMP-SMX, pentamidine, dapsone
PCP patient presents Low ABGs out of proportion to clinical scenario
"Rose Gardener's disease" Sporothrix schenckii
Sporothrix schenckii: dimorphic/non-dimorphic. It causes ___ dimorphic. causes local pustule/ulcer with nodules along draining lymphatics, little systemic illness.
Treatment for Sporothrix schenckii itraconazole, potassioum iodide
Cigar-shaped budding yeast Sporothrix schenckii
Created by: ddecampo