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CH11 audesirk VOCAB

QuestionAnswer
WHEN does DNA replication occur? S-phase of interphase
WHERE does DNA replication occur? nucleus
What is the key feature that allows DNA to be copied? the pairing of nitrogen bases in DNA
Who discovered that harmless bacteria can be "transformed" into pneumonia-causing bacteria? F. Griffith
Who identified that DNA is the transforming factor? Avery & Associates
Who identified that the genetic material of a virus is not protein? Hershey & Chase
Who used x-ray diffraction to determine that DNA is a helical molecule? Franklin & Wilkins
Who identified that the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine in DNA and that the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine in DNA? (chargaff's rules... A=T and G=C) Chargaff
Who pulled the data together to construct a 3-dimensional model of DNA as a double helix in which two strands were wound around each other? Watson & Crick
Who received the Nobel Prize in 1962? Watson & Crick and Wilkins
Who died in 1958? Franklin
What is the structure of DNA? 4 nucleotides
Each nucleotide has a __________, a ______________, and a ___________. phosphate; 5 carbon sugar; nitrogen containing base
What are the 4 bases? adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
___________ (A&G) are double ring bases- larger in size. Purines
_________ (T&C) are single ring bases- smaller in size. Pyrimidines
DNA is a ____________. double helix
A double helix is a ____________. twisted ladder
The ___________________ make up the ___________ (sides) of the molecule.... held together with __________ bonds (strong). sugars & phosphates; backbones; covalent
The _________________ make up the ___________ (rungs) and are held together with _____________ bonds (easily broken). base pairs; middle; hydrogen
A bonds to T with _ hydrogen bonds. 2
G bonds to C with _ hydrogen bonds. 3
The ________ side of the DNA helix reads 3' to _'. This is the _____________ and also reads _____ to right, _______ to top. right; 5; hydroxylon sugar; left; bottom
The ___________ side of the DNA helix reads 5' to _'. This is the ________________ and also reads ________ to left, ___ to bottom. left; 3; phosphate end; right; top
All "____" (combo of bases (codons)) have only _ letters. words; 3
How letters are there in the bases alphabet? 4
4 cubed = ___ (how many combos of codons) 64
What does DNA replication produce? 2 double helices
Both double helices produces have what? 1 original strand and 1 new strand
Producing 1 original and 1 new strand is called what? semiconservative replication
Replication involves what 3 major actions and enzymes? DNA helicase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase
This enzyme involved in replication separates the parent strands. DNA helicase
This enzyme involved in replication synthesizes new DNA strands and proofreads strands. DNA polymerase
This enzyme involved in replication joins segments to make the daughter strands. DNA ligase
The result of DNA helicase breaking the hydrogen bonds between the complementary parental DNA strands: unwound sections of DNA strands
Name this part of DNA replication: a place at the edge of the replication bubble where the parental DNA strands have not yet been unwound... where DNA polymerase adds complementary bases to parts that are unwound replication fork
If there are no mistakes during replication: 2 _____ DNA helices are formed... ______ to the _________ and to each ______. identical; identical; original; other
_____________ and other enzymes "proofread" the strands for accuracy and fixes most errors. DNA polymerase
________/ 100 million to 1 billion base pairs 1 mistake
The mistakes (mutations) can be: good, bad, or null
Sources of error in DNA: chemicals, UV rays, aging
____ mutations are the driving force of ____________. good; evolution
Created by: LizChick295