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difusion and osmisis

quiz

TermDefinition
water always moves from where there is _____ water to where there is ____ water more, less
diffusion the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration that does not require energy. Spreads molecules out evenly
what are the general functions of the cell membrane it acts as a physical barrier, regulates exchange, gives structural support, and communication and cell ID
physical barrier separating the inside of the cells from the outside of the cell
regulates exchange with environment either by allowing materials to slip through or to be transported across by protein channels
structural support structural proteins in the membrane are tethered to the cytoskeleton creating a shape for cells
communication and cell ID signals from external environment are transferred to the inside across the cell membrane and carbohydrate chains attached to the outside of the cell membrane to identify the cells self (blood typing)
concentration gradient a difference in concentration in one place of particle compared to another
semi-permeable (selectively- permeable) allows it to regulate what can actually enter and leave a cell. Allows certain molecules and rejects others
polar heads (phosphate heads) are hydrophilic- water loving
nonpolar tails are hydrophobic - water fearing
what determines which molecules can and cannot pass through the cell membrane the size of the molecule - smaller passes, polarity or fat solubility of the molecule - nonpolar pass easily, and charge of molecules- neutral
what are some molecules that pass through easily o2 co2 n2 because they are small, glycerol and ethanol because they are uncharged
what are some molecules that cannot pass through easily glucose, amino acids because they are large H+, Na+ and CI- because they have a charge
what are glycolipids and glycoproteins used for they are used for cell recognition and cell communication
cholesterol in the membrane for membrane fluidity and not all of it is bad
what are proteins channels used for structural support, recognition, communication, and transport
osmosis the diffusion of water across the cell membrane (selectively permeable) water moves from high to low concentration
equilibrium the solute concentration is equal everywhere in the solution
Isotonic solution solute concentration inside and out of the cell is equal so there is no net movement of water
Hypotonic solution the solute concentration outside the cell is lower that inside the cell so water will move inside the cell and the cell will expand/swell
Hypertonic solution the solute concentration outside the cell is higher than inside the cell so the water will move out of the cell and the cell will shrink/shrivel
cytolysis when a cell bursts due to the excess water in the cell, the cell dies a hypertonic environment
plasmolysis when the cell shrivels due to all the water going out of the cell in a hypertonic environment
types of passive transport simple diffusion , facilitated diffusion , osmosis
what molecules pass through using facilitated diffusion glucose ions and larger molecules
endocytosis movement of materials INTO the cell and the two ways are phagocytosis and pinocytosis
phagocytosis larger bulky material into cell
pinocytosis liquid into cell
active transport movement of molecules from low to high concentration which is against the concentration gradient REQUIRES ENERGY
types of active transport sodium/potassium pump in nerve cells, endocytosis, exocytosis
exocytosis moving materials (waste) out of the cell
what kind of environment do plants plasmolyze in a hypertonic environment
cells swells when they contain _____ solute than their environment more
list the pathway of air into the human respiratory system trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
trachea windpipe
bronchi branch from trachea
bronchioles tiny airways that lead to avoli
gas exchange between avoli happens from high to low
surfactant in alveoli chemical that prevents alveoli from closing
hemoglobin large protein that binds oxygen and travels on red blood cells
how do you kidneys help your body maintain homeostasis help take out waste and regulates blood pressure
what is a nephron the functional units of the kidneys where urine is produced
filtration removal of materials from blood into the nephron
reabsorption to be absorbed back into the blood
secretion any waste left in the blood goes into the nephron for elimination
what are the functions of a nephron filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
what is urine made up of substance that have undergone filtration but were not reabsorbed, and substance that have undergone secretion
chambers of the heart left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, right ventricle
top chambers atrium
bottom chambers ventricles
arties branch into capillaries and carry oxygen rich blood
veins carry oxygen poor blood
capillaries blood vessels are designed for gas exchange
describe blood flow through the heart starting with the SVC to right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, let atrium, left ventricle, aorta, IVC, start again
what side is oxygen poor right
what side is oxygen rich left
which vessels deliver oxygen poor blood from the body IVC, SVC
where does oxygen rich blood come from and which vessels deliver it there it comes from the lungs specifically the pulmonary vein
systole contracting
diastole relaxing
cardiac conduction system electrical activity of your heart
pacemaker signals the nodal tissue throughout heart so there is a beating rhythm, in right atrium
what does an EKG measure the electrical activity of of the heart
what conditions cause plants to open their stomata when guard cells become turgid (full of water) they bulge outward causing the stomata to open
what conditions will cause plants to close their stomata when guard cells are no longer turgid so they are not bowing outwards and the stomata close
xylem transports water and minerals
phloem transports sugars
tension-cohesion theory explains xylem transport
arrhythmias abnormal EKGs
alveoli microscopic cavites filled with lots of capillaries, provide alot of surface area
cohesion tendency of water to stick together
adhesion bonds to other charged moleculse
Created by: emassmann