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Biology Chapter 10.4

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
Transcription The process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
Translation The portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
Protein Synthesis The formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA.
Ribose A five-carbon sugar present in RNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) A single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) An organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) An RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation.
RNA Polymerase An enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template.
Promoter A nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene.
Termination Signal A specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of the gene.
Genetic Code The rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Codon In DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
Anticodon A region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA.
Genome The complete genetic material contained in an individual.
Created by: DragonT20