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CELLS

wonders of the cell

QuestionAnswer
Who was Robert Brown? The man who discovered the nucleus in the 1800s
What did Anton Van Leeuwenhoek and Robert Hooke do? They created the microscope so the ability to look at cells and their contents was possible.
What is the first fact in the cell theory? All living things are made of cells.
What is the second fact in the cell theory? Cells are the basic (smallest) unit of life; ie. carry on the 8 life functions; smallest living thing
What is the third fact in the cell theory? Cells can only come from preexisting cells. (said by Virchow)
Who was Schleiden? He said that all plants are made of cells.
Who was Schwann? He said that all animals were made of cells.
What were some problems with the cell theory? Where did the first cell come from? Where do viruses come into place?
What are some important facts about viruses? Are the acception to the cell theory because no one knows if they are living or nonliving. They do not have any organelles; only have DNA and RNA in a protein head. They use all of their host cell's machinery and they can't replicate without a host cell.
What are the two cell types? Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
What is important about prokaryotic cells? They are a simple structure (no nucleus) and they are very ancient (3 billion years ago). They are present in bacteria only. Also, they have no membrane-bound organelles, have many ribosomes, and has a nucleiod region.
What is important about eukaryotic cells? They are a complex structure and they are relatively recent (1.3 billion years ago). They are present in plants and animals.
What are some important facts about the nucleus? It is the cellular control center; it is surrounded by a nuclear membrane; it holds genetic material; holds the nucleolus=have a role in ribosome synthesis;holds nucleoplasm; has holes to allow stuff to exit and enter
What is the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum? It is a network of channels for the transport of proteins; butts up with the nuclear membrane; contains ribosomes; place where proteins are made
What is the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum? It is important in lipid synthesis for membranes; steroid synthesis (testosterone and estrogen);and calcium storage which is involved in sending messages (cell signaling)
What are ribosomes? They are synthesis proteins and they can be large and small sub-units. They can remain free or dock with the ER. Bound ribosomes make proteins for export (ie. secretory proteins)and cell membrane . Free ones make proteins for inside of the cell.
What is mRNA? A rough copy of a segment of DNA. It leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores because it is one stranded. It binds free or to the ER ribosomes and the ribosomes make proteins
How are proteins related to ER? Proteins fold in the ER as it moves through the channels.
What is a cytoplasm? This makes up the bulk of the cell, but is not an organelle. It is mostly water and is where most organelles are found. It is a place where chemical reactions occur (ie. glycolysis)
What is a mitochondria? This organelle powers the cell. It performs cell respiration=converts sugar into energy. "Powerhouse" of the cell. HAVE OWN DNA AND CAN REPLICATE INDEPENDENTLY! It is fed with glucose and is a double membrane organelle.
How could the mitochondria have been its own organism? Mitochondria has its own ribosomes--can reproduce by itself--has DNA--it is around the size of a bacterial cell--stated with the new cell because it powered it with glucose and the cell stayed with the mitochondria because it provided it with energy.
What is a lysosome? This is a fat bubble aka the garbage can/stomach of the cell. Anything that is rejected and old is sent here (ie. defective proteins or organelles). It has hydrolytic enzymes (enzymes that do hydrolysis)--cellular digestion function--
How can you tell the difference between a vacuole and lysosome? Lysosomes have little dots and vacuoles do not have them.
What is autophagy? It is a pac-men-like gobuole that gobbles cytoplasm with worn out proteins and organelles and brings it to lysosome. Defense role against bacteria and viruses. Reduced autophagy thought to lead to many diseases.
What is apoptosis? If a cell thinks it is not doing well, it will commit suicide to save the body, but, they must go through a series of check points in case they are a good cell that should not being killing themselves. Neighboring cells then eat them and use their parts.
What is a vacuole? Vacuoles are small but numerous; similar to a closet; mainly in plants and protists; also in animal cells; storage functions (pigments, food, toxins, waster; digestive functions; water balance
What are peroxisomes? They are similar to lysosomes and break down substances. They produce a waster product called hydrogen peroxide, then, they break it down. ONLY IN ANIMAL CELLS!
What is a food vacuole? doesn't have acid--can't digest food--but it stores it until it is sent to the lysosome.
What is a contractile vacuole? It expels excess liquid from the organism. Found in paramecium--looks like a sun (it is basically a water pump.)
How do plant vacuoles differ from animal vacuoles? Plant vacuoles store starch and animal vacuoles store glycogen. Animal cells have many small vacuoles all throughout the cytoplasm, while plant cells have one, central, large vacuole.
What is the cytoskeleten? It is made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments.
What are microtubules? It is made up of globular Tubulin Protein. They are the highways of the cell. They provide cell shape and are organelle anchors and molecular motors--provide the movement of cilia and flagella--make up centrioles--widest of the cables in the cytoplasm
What are intermediate filaments? Anchorage and reinforcement rods inside the nucleus and anchor chromatin(DNA); made of diverse fibrous proteins; found in muscles, epithelial tissue, neurons, and macrophages. They help make the cables wider.
What are actin filaments(microfilaments)? Made of globular Actin Protein; involved with cellular contraction and cell pinching; facilitate cyclosis
What are centrioles? They are involved with cellular division and are 2 barrel like structures. Located in the centers one region and made up of microtubules; not found in plant cells.
Why does a cut heal? A cell divides causing the skin to repair.
What is a plastid? Basically a type of organelle that stores stuff. The are found only in photosynthetic cells; leucoplasts=storage site for nutrients; chromoplasts=pigment storage sites
What is GRANA? stacks of sacks filled with chlorophyll-- each sack is called a thylakoid and the membrane that makes up the sack is called the thylakoid membrane.
What is STROMA? Liquid surrounding the stacks inside the chloroplasts.
What is a Chloroplast? A type of chromoplast which is a type of plastid. It is a organelle found only in plant cells and is filled with chlorophyll which makes it green.
Could chloroplasts have been their own organism? Yes, because it has its own DNA and replicates itself in the cell.
What is Cillia? It is short in length, but numerous. It is involved with cell movement and connected to a cell via a basal body (a basal body is an anchor). It has a 9+2 microtubule arrangement.
What is Flagella? There are usually 1 or 2 per cell and they are long in length. They can be in the front or back of the cell and connceted via basal body. 9+2 pattern of microtubules.
What kind of pattern do centrioles have? a 9 triplet pattern.
What makes up the basal body? 9 triple + microtubule makes up the basal body.
What is the plasma (cell) membrane? This holds in the cytoplasm and it is selectively permeable. This means that it chooses who comes in and out and who does not. It is made of phospholipids, cholesteral, proteins, and carbohydrates.
What does the cell membrane look like? Has proteins sticking through the phospholipids and is called the fluid mosaic model because it is made up of so many things. Things don't stay in one place in the membrane (not constant).
What is the animal cell's answer to the absence of the cell wall? They have the extracellular matrix. It is a network of fibrous collagen and glycoproteins (proteins with carbs). It is connected to the cytoskeleten via Integrin proteins in the membrane. It gives support, strength, and resilience.
What is collagen? It makes the skin flexible and older people lose this as they age. People inject this in their lips for plumper lips.
Where is cholesterol in the plasma membrane? It is hydrophobic which causes it to like to stay near the fatty acids.
What makes up the Endomembrane system? All organelles in the cell that have their own membrane that come together to do a function. These organelles include the nuclear membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, endosomes and the cell membrane.
How is the endomembrane system involved with secretory proteins? Secretory proteins are ribosomes that are destined to be secreted from the cell and that is what the endomembrane system will do for them.
What are the types of cell junctions? Tight junctions: fused membranes and force material thorugh cells rather than to sides; Gap Junction: cytoplasm of cells connected through channel (almost like they are fused together).
What is the difference between a plant cell and an animal cell? Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and one large vacuole, while animal cells don't have those things, but have centrioles and tiny, numerous vacuoles while plant cells do not.
What is the cell wall? A barrier that is exterior to the plasma mebrane and provides shape and protection. It is made of cellulose in plant cells. Only found in bacterial, yeast, and plant cells.
What is the endosymbiotic theory? This is the origin of the eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from bacteria were gobbled up by an ancient Cell and these organisms then lived inside this cell and were a benefit to it (endosymbiosis which is living/working together.)
What is the proof for the endosymbiotic theory? Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and they can replicate independently. They are the same size as present bacteria and they have their own ribosomes and are bacterial-like.
Why are most cells very small? Being small allows them to be more efficient. As the cell gets larger, it has a farther distance from organelles to the cell membrane/wall so nutrients and proteins take longer to get there.
Why is being a big cell bad? Bigger cells=long time to get rid of toxic wastes and getting nutrients in takes more time. Too much volume to surface area to handle. Danger of being destroyed.
What is surface area to volume ratio? Volume increases proportionally larger than surface area as the cell gets bigger. Basically the volume of our cells grows at a faster rate than our surface area.
The plasma membrane is selectively permeable, so how does it keep the important things in? It maintains its homeostasis which keeps the important organelles in and the viruses out.
What can cross the membrane freely? Lipid-like molecules, small uncharged molecules (simple diffusion), some small molecules but they need a helper membrane transport protein (ex. glucose), charged substances also need help to cross, and large molecules like polymers can't cross.
What is an aquaporin channel? This allows water flow across the membrane.
What is diffusion? It is a mechanism for freely crossing. A process that allows molecules to move from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration until equilibrium--no energy needed--need a concentration gradient to drive movement.
What is facilitated diffusion? Passive-no energy needed but requires transport protein; need gradient
What is osmosis? Diffusion of water--goes from high water concentration to a low water concentration or from a low solute to a high solute concentration. (think U-Tube)
What are effects of osmosis? The inside of the cell can be hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic to the outside of the cell or the other way around.
What does hypertonic mean? If the outside of the cell is hypertonic to the inside of the cell, that means that their is more solute in the outside, so water in leaving the cell.
What does hypotonic mean? If the outside of the cell is hypotonic to the inside of the cell, that means their is more solute in the inside of the cell, which means water is moving into the cell.
What does isotonic mean? This is when water goes in and out of the cell but there is no net movement because their is an equal amount of solute inside and outside of the cell.
What is an animal cell like in an isotonic environment? It is a normal shape for the type of cell that it is.
What is an animal cell like in a hypotonic environment? It is enlarged because the water is imploding it. It is a lysed cell.
What is an animal cell like in a hypertonic environment? It is shriveled because the water is leaving the cell. It is a crenated cell.
What is a plant cell like in an isotonic environment? It is a flacid cell.
What is a plant cell like in a hypotonic environment? It is a turgid cell.
What is a plant cell like in a hypertonic environment? It is a shriveled cell.
What is a lysed cell? This is a cell that bursts when put into a hypotonic environment.
What is a crenated cell? A shriveled cell.
What does flaccid mean? floppy--plants don't like this.
What does turgid mean? plump--plants want this!!
What does shriveled mean? something crinkly
What is active transport? Requires energy and it moves materials against a concentration gradient. (going against the current)
What is Endocytosis? transporting things into a cell (ex. pinocytosis and phagocytosis)
What is pinocytosis? taking small amounts of dissolved materials into the cell via vesicles. (cell drinking) (nonspecific proteins)
What is phagocytosis? Taking large solid materials into a cell via food vacuoles. (cell eating)(nonspecific proteins)
What is Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis? Specific uptake (ex. LDLs)
What is an LDL? a taxi cab that cholesterol travels in.
What is the difference between HDL and LDL? HDL is a beneficial cholesterol while LDL is a harmful cholesterol.
Why do the membranes join together in active transport endocytosis? This is because the membranes are made of fat and fat loves fat.
What are some examples of unicellular creatures? Protozoa, Bacteria, Algae
What is a colonial organsim? individual cells loosely connected and their is no specialization (they are all the same and act like independent unicellular creatures) (ex. volvox) Basically they are made of independent cells but they choose to be together loosely.
What is a true multicellular organism? has many cells who divide the labor and perform specialized function. Each cell is dependent on other cells and the cells are organized into tissues.
What is a tissue? Cells similar and perform the same function (ex. epithelial tissue, connective tissue, blood, muscle, and nerve.)
What is the only liquid tissue? Blood.
What is an organ? Group of different tissues working together for a common function.
What is an organ system? Group of organs working for a common fucntion (ex. digestive system, nervous system)
Created by: sarahfishkin