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Chapter 15

Cell Biology

TermDefinition
Cytosol Jelly portion that suspends organelles & cytoskeleton; keeps everything together; site for metabolic processes; helps pass signals in the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Found throughout the cell; makes and packages proteins and lipids (assembly line)
Two types of ER Smooth - assembles and packages lipids; metabolism of alcohol and drugs Rough - assembles and packages proteins; contains ribosomes; connected to nuclear membrane
Endomembrane system Contains: nuclear envelope, ER, Golgi body, Vehicles Assembles proteins, modifies and encloses them in the plasma membrane to be used inside or outside of cell
Golgi body Located near the nucleus, flattened sacs called cisternae, sorts modifies and ships proteins (UPS), has a CIS side - faces the ER and receives the vehicle, Trans side - faces plasma membrane and releases vesicles
lysosome Small sac that breaks down carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins to be reused; digest bacteria, dead cells or aging organelles; recycling center; made from Golgi and endosomes
endosomes Small sac; materials brought in by endocytosis are sorted and sent where needed in the cell; sent to the lysosomes
peroxisome Neutralizes toxins and breaks down lipids; single membrane with digestive enzymes ; prominent in the liver; breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and O2
Evolution of organelles Endosymboint theory - mitochondria and chloroplasts, own DNA, double membrane Endomembrane theory - all other organelles
autophagy Mechanism by which a cell eats itself, digesting molecules and organelles that are damaged
Chaperone protein Steers proteins along productive folding pathways, helping them to fold correctly and prevent them from forming aggregates inside the cell
clathrin A protein that makes up the coat of a transport vesicle that buds from the Golgi or the plasma membrane
pinocytosis type of endocytosis where soluble materials are taken from the environment and incorporated into vesicles for digestion; cell drinking
Rab protein GTP binding proteins on the surface of transport vesicles and organelles that serve as a molecular marker to help ensure the vesicles fuse with the correct membrane
SNARE One of a family of membrane proteins responsible for the elective fusion of vesicles with a target membrane inside the cell
UPR (unfolded protein response) Molecular program triggered by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER; allows cells to expand the ER and produce more machinery needed to restore the proper folding and processing
Created by: Earleyn