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Chapter 17

Cell Biology

Describe structure and function of intermediate filaments They are mid-sized fibers woven into thick cables used for permanent structure, anchor organelles, resisting tension and make up nuclear lamina
Describe the structure and function of microtubules They are the largest of the cytoskeleton composed of alpha and beta filaments that coil to form a hollow rod. They support cell shape, resist compression, movement of the cell, organelles and chromosomes
Motor Proteins Used for intracellular transport; two families: kinesins (move out from the cell body towards the + end of microtubules and dyneins (move toward the cell body to the - end
Define cytoskeleton An intricate network of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm
Actin filaments Polymers of the protein actin that are essential in cell movements especially those of the cell surface
myosin A type of motor protein that uses ATP to drive movements along actin filaments.
Myosin I Simplest, present in all cells, a single actin - binding head and tail that can attach to molecules or organelles
Lamellipodia A thin, sheetlike, dense mesh work of actin filaments oriented so the + ends are close to the plasma membrane
Rho protein family A family of small monomeric GTPases that control the organization of the actin cytoskeleton
1st step in muscle contraction Action potential travels toward a skeletal muscle to a point called the neuromuscular junction
2nd step in muscle contraction At the junction acetylcholine is released
3rd step in muscle contraction Acetylcholine binds to the receptor causing Na+ to enter the muscle fiber, generating an action potential
4th step in muscle contraction Action potential travels through the T- tumbles releasing Ca+ into the cytoplasm
5th step in muscle contraction Ca+ activates actin-myosin binding sites for the actin and myosin heads
6th step in muscle contraction ATP is hydrolyzed for flexing the myosin heads
7th step in muscle contraction The flexing of the myosin heads brings the actin closer to the middle of the sarcomere
8th step in muscle contraction ATP is used to pump Ca+ back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum for relaxation to occur
Created by: Earleyn