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Chapter 18

Cell Biology

Apoptosis A tightly controlled form of program cell death that allows cells that are unneeded or unwanted to be eliminated from an adult or developing organism
Stages of cell cycle Interphase - 3 Phases: G1, S, G2 Mitotic (M) phase
G1 Phase Cell grows, copies organelles, makes molecular building blocks
S Phase Cell synthesizes a complete copy of DNA in nucleus, duplicates the centrosomes
G2 Phase Cell continues to grow, makes proteins and organelles, reorganizes and repairs its contents in preparation for mitosis
S Phase Cell synthesizes a complete copy of DNA in nucleus, duplicates the centrosomes
G2 Phase Cell continues to grow, makes proteins and organelles, reorganizes its contents in preparation for mitosis
Mitotic (M) phase Cell divides the copied DNA and cytoplasm to make two new cells Two processes: mitosis and cytokinesis
Mitosis DNA of the cell condenses into visible chromosomes and pulled apart by the mitotic spindle. 4 stages: prophesy, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Cytokinesis The cytoplasm is split in two making two new cells, begins just as mitosis is ending, in anaphase or telophase
Prophase - early, late Early- mitotic spindle forms, chromosomes condense, nucleolus is gone Late- nuclear envelope breaks down, chromosomes fully condensed
Metaphase Spindle captures all chromosomes and line up at metaphase plate (middle of the cell)
Anaphase Sister chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell, microtubules push poles apart elongating the cell
Telaphase Chromosomes decondense, spindles disappear, nuclear membrane reforms, nucleolus reappears, two new nuclei form (one for each set of chromosomes)
Created by: Earleyn



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