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Cells

Cellular Biology and Transport Mechanisms

TermDefinition
Name the six levels of organisation Chemical, cells, tissue, organs, organ system, organism
What is the chemical Level of organisation Units of matter that participate in chemical reactions. i.e atoms, DNA and molecules
What is the cellular Level of organisation Basic structural and functional unit of a living organism
What is the organ Level of organisation Different types of tissues joined together. Composed of two or more types of tissue. They have specific functions. Normally recognizable shape. e.g liver, lungs, heart etc
What is the organ system Level of organisation Composed of related organs with a common function, There are considered to be 11 systems within the body; Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary and Reproductive
What is the tissuel Level of organisation Groups of cells and the material that surround them. Working together to perform a particular function. There are four basic types of tissue • Epithelial • Connective • Muscular • Nervous
What is the organism Level of organisation All part of the body functioning together to constitute the total organism
What is a Cat Ion? A cation is a positively charged ION. examples include; Hydrogen, calcium, sodium and potassium
What is an AnIon? An anion is a negitivly charged ION. examples include Fluoride, chloride, iodide and hydroxide
Functions of a LIPID? A lipid is a fat which stores energy, makes membranes and can act as hormones,
Enzymes Definition and Function They are macromolecular biological catalysts. They increase reaction rates, Reduce activation energy of the reaction , Enzymes are unchanged after reaction and are under cellular control. They are highly specific
The cell wall Bi layer is a phospholipid bi layer that contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
The cell membrance A selective barrier that regulates the flow of materials between the cells internal environment for external environments. Being selective it helps create and maintain the appropriate environment for normal cellular activities.
What are the different types of transport mechanisms Simple diffusion Osmosis Facilitated diffusion Active transport Endo/Exocytosis
Diffusion The movement of solute from a high concentration solution to a lower concentration solution.
Osmosis The movement of water from a high concentration solution to a lower concentration solution.
Facilitated Diffusion Where positively charged ions are unable to simply diffuse across the membrane, channel proteins (tunnel like structures in the membrane) and carrier protines (suck them in and spins and spits them back out ) can be used instead for them to travel through
Active transport dissolved molecules move across a cell membrane from low to high concentrations. Particles move against the concentration gradient and require an input of energy from the cell.
endo and exo cytosis vesicles carrying particles carry to cell membrane wall and pushes it out in exocytosos and vesicles form a bubble around particles and carry them into a cell for endocytosis
Epithelial Tissue Covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, and cavities, forms glands Squamous • Simple • Cuboidal • Columnar
connective tissue Connects, supports and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues Fibrous • Loose, Dense, Elastic, Reticular • Special Connective • Cartilage, Bone, Blood, Adipose
Muscle tissue Contracts, makes body parts move, generates heat Skeletal muscle • Smooth muscle • Cardiac muscle
Nervous tissue Carries information to other parts of the body
Blood Cells – Red cells – erythrocytes – White cells – leucocytes – Platelets - thrombocytes
Ribosomes are made from two sub units but where are they made? In the neucleolus
Sodium, Potassium and hydrogen existing in the body unbound to another element they are……….? Cations
The …………….. of the cell is the main site for production of ATP by the process of …………….. Mitochondria and Cellular respiration
The carbohydrate monosaccharides combine by a ………………….reaction to form ……………? d
Phospholipids have ……………head and……………tails allowing them the properties to form membranes Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic
Enzymes are easily ………………by changes of …………..and…………….. x
Diffusion refers to the movement of molecules from ……………………. to……………………? High to low
A cell in a hypotonic solution would…………….? expand
a cell in a hypertonic solution would……………..? go all spikey looking
The movement of substances through the cell membrane along its concentration gradient by a carrier protein is an example of ……………..? Facilitated Diffusion
The movement of Na+/K+ using the Na+/K+ pump is a example ………………..transport. Active Transport
……………..Is a storage polysaccharide made from Alpha glucose monomers. ?
Created by: Deveres