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Genetics Vocab

1. heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
2. Genetics the science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring
3. monohybrid a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
4. P generation parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
5. F1 generation the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
6. F2 generation the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
7. allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
8. dominant the expressed form of a trait
9. recessive the trait that is not expressed when the dominant form of the trait was present
10. homozygous describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes
11. heterozygous describes an individual that has two different alleles for a trait
12. genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
13. phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic that results from the organism's genotype and the environment
14. law of segregation Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
15. law of independent assortment the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
16. Punnett square a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
17. test cross the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotypes
18. probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event; the mathematical ratio of the number of times one outcome of any event is likely to occur to the number of possible outcomes of the event
19. pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
20. sex-linked traits a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosomes or the Y chromosomes in humans
21. polygenic trait a characteristic of an organism that is determined by many genes
22. incomplete dominance a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully
23. multiple alleles more than two alleles (versions of a gene) for a genetic trait
24. codominance a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
25. vaccine substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity



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