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COMD 326 Final

QuestionAnswer
Describes a normal /r/ semi-vowel,sonorant constant, rhotic
Does not describe a normal /r/ stable format values
Maximum phonation time is calculated by say /a/ as long as possible
Voice onset time measures the amount of time between burst and onset of voicing
Diodectickinetic rate (DDK) determined the number of syllables used in one second.
Amplitude measure determine the highest energy value of a vowel
Hypokinetic dysarthria common in Parkinson is characterized by reduced vocal intensity, reduced jitter, increased shimmer, not monotone
spatsic dysarthria increased effort in speech production
in voice characteristics irregularity of frequency ir amplitude(shimmer) is called perturbation
in voice characteristics change in format or time slope index
spectral measure example resonant frequency of noise
The glottis is open during which (thrown out of test) real answer breathing other accepted the glottis is open for more than one function listed above...(breathing, coughing,phonation)
Not true for the F2 transitions a long and shallow F2 transition relfects a tongue movement that is fast with full range of motion
true for F@ transitions related to place of articulation, used to calculate slope index
a voice disorder by tissue changes that are due to disease process is called organic disorder
Put the stages in correct order low pressure is created behind fast moving air column bottom and top of vocal fold toward midline column of air pushes the vocal folds open bottom to top closure of the vocal folds cut of air column and release pulse of column of air opens vocal folds form top to bottom low pressure is built bottom and top of vocal folds to midline closure of vocal folds cut off air column
Fastest format transitions for English phoneme /w/ Glides
Format frequencies are frequency bands with increased energy
periodic frequencies present in an aperiodic complex sound
complex frequencies present in pure tones
glottal spectrum nothing to do with filter
nasals do/are not higher in amplitude than vowels
nasals have format structures similar to vowels, bifurcated vocal tract, severely damped in comparison to vowels
longest voice onset time stops voiceless /p/
highest frequency of noise fricative further forward /v/
teh vocal tract acts as an acoustic resonator meaning it selectively transmits frequencies through it
Individuals with a trachestomy have difficulty speaking because they can not achieve subglottal pressure
with out the bernoulli principle vocal fold -------necessary for a muscosal wave would not occur adduction
acoustic measures such as jitter and shimmer may be used as a screening tool,may be used to monitor voice changes over time,may be used to detect early changes in voice that may not be detectable with perceptible ear
/k/ is produced by suddenly releasing pressurized air from a constriction in vocal tract
snort suddenly releasing pressurized air from nasal cavity
acoustic analysis of the ------- is appropriate to monitor progress of phonological process, velar fronting in a child spectral slope of burst
speakers with cleft palate typically have particular difficulty producing fricatives because of reduced intraoral pressure
the vowel in the word head is a mid low front vowel
must happen before voice therapy evaluation by otolaryngologist
dysarthrias that affect voice production are associated with centeral nervous system damage
subglottic pressure is the primary determiner in loudness
the term hyponasal refers to decreased nasal pressure
total occlusion of vocal tract is represented visually by the stop gap
damping is most evident in the production if nasals
during the production of vowels the relative position of the tongue along the back-front dimension is expressed acoustically by the frequency if the second format
tongue height the first format frequency
foramt frequencies for vowels do not vary by age or gender False
in the same speaker the F2 of /w/ is ----than the F2 of /j/ Lower
In the same speaker the F3 of /l/ is ----- than the F3 of /r/ higher
Rounding and retracting of the tongue changes the formats making them lower, especially effects F2
Raising the tongue Lowers F1 changes the formats making them higher
Myeloelasticaerodynamic theory a widely accepted theroy of vocal fold vibration
nasal murrmur an extra low frequency format that occurs when the velum is relaxed
stop gap the time when the intraoral pressure is built up for a sound such as /t/ reflects the time during which the articulators are forming the blockage
VOT voice onset time refers to the time between the release of the articulatory blockage in a sound such a /k/ to the beginning of vocal fold vibration for the following vowel
spectogram 3-d graphic representation of sound displaying frequency info on the vertical axis, time on horizontal, and amp as the darkness of shading
format frequency harmonic frequencies/frequency amplified due to the resonant characteristics of the vocal tract
fundamental frequency lowest frequency of a sound the number of vibrations per second
acoustic vowel quadrilateral a graphic representation of an individual's vowel space created by plotting the coordinates for the first and second formats of each vowel
Define Frequency transition, in which constants are they evident, when in vowels a format transition is when a format changes due to a change in the shape of the vocal tract which changes the format.
Frequency transition, in which constants are they evident, when in vowels These are evident in diphtongs, glides and liquids they are evident in and regular vowels and sonorant constants as they transition to adjacent sounds
Draw name and Label the axis of the spectra of the source filter theroy of vowel production 1. Source y=amplitude, x=frequency- bars going like downward slope 2 Filter y=amp,x=frequency-wave 3 output spectrum y=amp,x=frequency-source+Filter
a voice disorder with no known causes functional disorder
a high F2 is a good cue for which sound /i/
deteremines the format structure of speech sounds particularity vowels the length and shape of vocal tract
Particular frequencies of sound are selectively reinforced when traveling through objects resonance
vowel errors on sonorant constants would be manifest as changes in format structure
the characteristic acoustic features of fricative constants is noise energy
perception of stop constants is usually done categorically true
constants are --- than vowels shorter in duration and lower in amp
the vocal tract is least constricted in the production of low vowels
what type of constant is characterized only by its format transitions glide
what format transition is similar in both alveolar and velar stop constants F1
resonant constant that has a spectrum characterized by stable format structure but very low amp (formats are evident but very light) /n/
a low format f3 is a distinctive acoustic property of /r/
the spectrum of labidental fricatives is characterized by low energy flat and diffuse spectrum
The middle ear amplifies pressure waves why are these action necessary because of the difference of medium between middle(air) and inner(fluid) ear will cause much of the energy to be reflected
frequency selectivity represents the ability of the auditory system to resolve the different frequencies present in complex sounds. without such frequency resolution multiple frequencies will perceived in the same way distorting the sound
aperiodic sounds on spectrogram lack well defined formats
four differences between breathing for life and speech breathing breathing speech: Intensity of exhalation is constantly changing,more vital capacity is used,inhale through the mouth instead if nose,the inhales are shorter and exhales are longer
the maximum quantity if air exhaled after a maximum inhalation is called residual volume
subglottal pressure refers to the pressure below the adducted vocal folds
The velopharyngeal port is closed most of the time when we breathe. false
The footplate of the stapes is embedded in the oval window
The stiffer part of the basilar membrane responds to higher frequencies
for people with hearing loss constants are easier to perceive than vowels false
people with hearing loss can hear all sounds as long as they are adequately amplified false
Inability ti perceive format transitions between fricatives and adjacent vowels may make fricative identification particularly difficult of people with hearing loss true
the ear is a transducer because it converts acoustic energy to mechanical to electrical
ossicle embedded in Tempanic membrane malleus
the end of the basilar membrane that responds to high frequency is basal end
a measure of how much force is needed to set something into vibration immitance
a measure of how easily energy is transmitted through a system admitance
a measure of resistance to energy transmission impedance
Created by: kallipso