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Chapter 10.4

Chapter 10.4 vocab

ribonucleic acid (RNA) a nucleic acid and an intermediate that genes direct the making of the protein called melanin through
transcription the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of DNA molecules as a template
translation the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
protein synthesis the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
ribose a five-carbon sugar present in RNA
messenger RNA (mRNA) a single-stranded RNA molecule the carries the instruction from a gene to make a protein
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) the part of the structure of ribosomes
transfer RNA (tRNA) an RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain transition
RNA polymerase an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of DNA molecule as a template
promoter a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule wo which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gane
termination signal a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
genetic code the rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of three consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
codon in DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
anticodon a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
genome the complete genetic material contained in an individual
Created by: CoffeyM20