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A&P II Chapter28M SG

Reproductive Study Guide (Male)

What are the primary reproductive organs in the male? Testes
What are the secondary reproductive organs in the male? Ducts and tubules, accessory glands, penis, scrotum
What is the function of the scrotum? Lower the temperature of the testes
What is the smooth muscle layer that causes the scrotum to expand and contract? Dartos muscle
What is the spermatic cord? Encloses the structures that extend to the testes
List the four structures contained in the spermatic cord: Testicular artery, pampiniform plexus, vas deferens, autonomic nerves to the testes
What is the purpose of the pampiniform plexus? Cool arterial blood coming in
What is spermatogenesis? Sperm production
What is the primary androgen produced by the testes? Testosterone
What forms the covering of the testes? Tunica vaginalis
What is the tunica vaginalis derived from? The peritoneum
How many layers compose the tunica vaginalis? Two
What is the white connective tissue capsule that forms the septa to divide the testes into lobules? Tunica albuginea
How many lobules are in each test? About 250
What do the lobules contain? Seminiferous tubules
What are the two types of cells in the seminiferous tubules? Sustentacular cells and germ cells
What do the germ cells produce? Sperm
What is the function of the sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells)? Provide a protective environment for developing sperm cells
Which cell is found between the seminiferous tubules? Interstitial cells
What do interstitial cells produce? Testosterone
Which organ releases FSH and LH? Anterior pituitary
What are the target cells of FSH and LH? Interstitial (LH) and sustentacular (FSH) cells
What is the action of LH? Stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone
What are two effects of testosterone secretion? Spermatogenesis, stimulates libido
When does spermatogenesis begin? Puberty
Where does spermatogenesis occur? Seminiferous tubules
What is a mature sperm cell called? Spermatozoa
What is the acrosome? Forms over the nucleus and contains enzymes to digest the exterior of the ova
What does the mid piece of the sperm contain? Mitochondria
What type of epithelium lines the epididymis? Pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium with stereocilia
What is the shape of the epididymis? Comma-shaped
What are the three parts of the epididymis? Head, body, tail
What are stereo cilia? Long microvilli on epididymis
What is the function of stereo cilia? Propel sperm
How long does it take for sperm to mature? 2-3 weeks
How How long are sperm alive? Around 74 days
Where does the vas deferens terminate? Near the site where the bladder and prostate meet?
List the three glands that produce seminal fluid: Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland
Why do the seminal vesicles produce fructose? To nourish the sperm
Why do the seminal vesicles produce prostaglandins? Dilate the external os of the cervix
Why does the prostate gland produce citric acid? Nutrient for sperm
What is PSA? Prostate specific antigen
Why does the prostate produce PSA? Liquifies semen
Why do the bulbourethral glands produce mucin? Lubricate the urethra for passage of sperm
How many sperm are in one ejaculate? 200-500 million
How many bodies of erectile tissue are found in the penis? 3
What is fertilization? The union of sperm and egg