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A&P II Chapter28F SG

Reproductive Study Guide (Female)

QuestionAnswer
What are the gonads for both genders? Female: ovaries Male: testes
What general types of cells do gonads produce? Gametes
What specific cell do each gonad produce? Female: ova Male: sperm
What is the difference between haploid cells and diploid cels? Mitosis produces two diploid cells from one. Meiosis produces four haploid cells from one
How many chromosomes do diploid and haploid cells have? 23
What are the only two haploid cells in human physiology? oocytes and sperm
Are gametes produced by mitosis or meiosis? Meiosis
What is produced by one parent cell by mitosis? Two diploid daughter cells
What is produced by one parent cell by meiosis? Four haploid daughter cells
How many rounds of cell division are in mitosis? One
How many rounds of cell division are in meiosis? Two
Are the two daughter cells in mitosis genetically identical? Yes
Are the four daughter cells from meiosis genetically identical? No
What significant event occurs in meiosis I? "Crossing over," exchange of genes between maternal and paternal chromosomes
What does crossing over guarantee about the genes of the daughter cells Increased genetic variability
What are the primary reproductive organs of the female? Ovaries
What are the secondary reproductive organs of the female? Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genetalia, mammary glands
Which cavity are the ovaries found in? Pelvic cavity
What is the section of the peritoneum that covers the uterus called? Broad ligament
Which part of the broad ligament attaches to the ovaries? Mesovarium
Which artery supplies the ovaries? Ovarian artery
Which vein drains the ovaries? Ovarian veins
Which type of epithelium forms the outer surface of the ovaries? Simple cuboidal
What is the dense connective tissue capsule of the ovary? Tunica albuginea
What is found in the cortex of the ovary? Ovarian follicles
What is found in the medulla of the ovary? Connective tissue, vessels, nerves, lymphatics
What two different cells compose a follicle? oocytes and follicular cells
How many follicles are found in the cortex? 1.5 million
What is the most primitive follicle called? Primordial follicle
What does a primordial follicle consist of? Primary oocyte surrounded by flattened follicle cells
What do primordial follicles mature into? Primary follicles
What does a primary follicle consist of? Primary oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of cuboidal follicular cells--now called granulosa cells
Why do primary follicles secrete estrogen? To stimulate the uterine lining
What do primary follicles mature into? Secondary follicles
What do secondary follicles mature into? Mature follicles
How many mature follicles form each month? One
What type of oocyte do mature follicles contain? Secondary oocytes
What happens to the oocyte at ovulation? The oocyte is expelled
What does the remaining follicle become? Corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum secrete? Estrogen and progesterone
What is the function of the hormones released by the corpus luteum? Develop the uterus for implantation of a fertilized oocyte
What structure does the corpus luteum become when it regresses? Corpus albicans
What initiates the process of puberty? Release of gonadotropin releasing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone
What organ releases GNRH? Hypothalamus
What are the target cells of GNRH Cells of the anterior pituitary
What hormones are released in response to GNRH? LH and FSH
Where are the target cells of FSH and LH Primordial follicles
How many days are in an ovarian cycle? 28
What are the three phases of the ovarian cycle? Follicular phase, ovulation phase, luteal phase
Which days of the cycle encompass the follicular phase? Days 1-13
What effect do FSH and LH have on primordial follicles? Stimulates them to become primary follicles
Why do the primary follicles release inhibit? To stop further FSH release
Of the 20 (or less) primordial follicles that are stimulated to become primary follicles, how many will eventually become mature follicles? One
Describe each of the two cells that are produced at the end of meiosis I: One cell gets all the cytoplasm and develops. The other cell becomes a non functioning cell
What is th neon functioning cell called? Polar body
On which day does the ovulation phase occur? Day 14
What initiates the ovulation phase? A peak in LH secretion
What occurs in the ovulation phase? The release of the secondary oocyte from the follicle.
Do the ovaries alternate ovulation? Yes
Which days of the cycle encompass the luteal phase? Days 15-28
What occurs during the luteal phase? The remaining follicular cells become the corpus luteum
What role does the corpus luteum assume? Secretes estrogen and progesterone
What is the function of the uterine tubes? Transport the oocyte to the uterus
What are the four sections of the uterine tube? Infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus, uterine part
Which section of the uterine tube contains the fimbriae? Infundibulum
What is the function of the fimbriae? Envelope the ovary at ovulation and pull the oocyte into the uterine tube
Which section of the uterine tube is usually the site of fertilization? Ampulla
Which section of the uterine tube opens into the uterus Uterine part
Describe the epithelium of the uterine tubes: Simple columnar with cilia
What is the function of the cilia in the uterine tubes? Pulls the oocyte into the tube and propels it to the uterus
What are the two methods by which the oocyte is moved along the uterine tubes to the uterus? Cilia move it, peristalsis
What are the four regions of the uterus? Fundus, body, isthmus, cervix
Which region forms the major part of the uterus? Body
What type of tissue composes the body of the uterus? Thich smooth muscle
Which section of the uterus connects to the vagina? Cervix
What are the two openings of the cervical canal? Internal os and external os
Describe the epithelium of the cervix Stratsified squamous epithelium with mucin secreting walls
What is the function of the mucus plug produced in the cervix? Creates a physical barrier to pathogens
What are the three tunics of the uterus? Perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
What is th eperimetrium continuous with? Broad ligament
How many layers of smooth muscle are in the myometrium? Three
What are the two layers of the endometrium? Basal layer (stratum basale) and functional layer
Which layer of the endometrium changes with the ovarian cycle? Functional layer
What stimulates the functional layer to develop? Hormones
What are the three phases of the endometrial development? Follicular phase, ovulation phase, luteal phase
The menstrual phase occurs on which days of the 28 day cycle? Days 1-5
What occurs in the menstrual phase? Sloughing of the functional layer of the endometrium
The proliferative phase occurs on which days of the 28 day cycle? Days 6-14
What occurs in the proliferative phase? Development of the new functional layer of the endometrium and follicle growth/estrogen secretion in the ovary
The secretory phase occurs on which days of the 28 day cycle? Days 15-28
What happens during the secretory phase? Development of the uterine glands
What happens to the functional layer of the endometrium if fertilization does not take place? Progesterone levels drop and the functional layer will slough off