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chapters 4 and 5

plasma membrane covers the surface of the cell and it acts as a barrier or guard of the outside of the cell.
cytoplasm is a part of the cell membrane that holds all of the organelles in the same region so they do not cross paths
cytosol the liquid that makes up the cytoplasm
nucleus the most prominent structure in the cell because it carries the DNA of the cell and it gives orders to the cell.
prokaryotes organisms that lack a membrane- bound nucleus and organelles (found in bacteria and archaea domains)
eukaryotes organisms made of one or more cells that have membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. (They are larger than prokaryote and they complete everyday functions like the heart or pancreas.)
organs groups of cells that perform particular jobs in an organism
tissue similar cells whose products carry out specific functions
organ system a group of organs that complete tasks related to each other (stomach and liver)
phospholipid bilayer when the phospholipids line up to make the cell membrane more permeable. (See page 77 for pictures)
fluid mosaic model a model that states that the phospholipid bilayer acts like a fluid.
nucleoplasm jello like liquid that fills the nucleus
chromosomes you have 23 of them and they are DNA in the nucleus
nuclear envelope they have pores that allow RNA and other materials to enter and exit the nucleus
nucleolus where DNA is concentrated and ribosomes are made
mitochondria an organelle that creates energy for the cell
cristea folds in the mitochondria that has proteins to harvest chemical reactions
endosymbiotic relationship a theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts came from prokaryotic cells but are now in eukaryotic cells.
ribosomes a system of membranous tubes and sacs that function as a path for materials to travel along
golgi bodies another network of membranous sacs that address where materials go and they modify the contents of what is being transported
vesicles small, circular sacs that are surrounded by a membrane and are classified by their contents.
cytoskeleton a network of thin tubes and filaments that cross the cytosol. These tubes and filaments create the structure of the cell and supports it.
microtubules hollow tubes made of a protein called tubulin that hold the organelles in place, maintain the shape of the cell, and a guide for the movement of organelles.
microfilaments long threads of bead-like protein that are wrapped around each other and these are finer than microtubules. They help with cell movement, the crawling of white blood cells and the contraction of muscle cells.
intermediate filaments rods that anchor the nucleus and other organelles to their places in the cell, helps maintain the shape of the nucleus, and these proteins make up most of the hair.
cilia and flagella hairlike structures that extend from the surface of a cell and they assist with movement. Flagella is used to propel protists and cells. Cilia helps detect sound in the ear, and they move water and food particles into the mouth.
centrioles short microtubules that are near the nuclear envelope and they help the cell during cell division. (mainly in animal cells)
cell wall a rigid layer that is outside the cell’s plasma membrane. They contain a carbohydrate called cellulose which forms a stiff box around each cell.
central vacuole a large sac that stores water and other materials such as enzymes
plastids organelles that contain their own DNA
thylakoids a flattened membranous sac that is in a chloroplast.
chlorophyll a molecule in the thylakoid that absorbs light and captures it
chloroplast plastids that have colorful pigments and can take part in photosynthesis.
diffusion the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration and it is the simplest form of passive transport
concentration gradient the difference in concentration of molecules across a distance
osmosis a type of passive transport that applies to water.
hypertonic a type of osmosis in which the materials leave the cell and cause it to shrink
hypotonic a type of osmosis in which materials enter the cell and can cause it to burst
isotonic a type of osmosis where materials enter and exit the cell creating equilibrium
turgor pressure the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
cytolysis the bursting of cells
facilitated diffusion a type of passive transport that helps molecules not ready to diffuse move across the cell membrane.
carrier proteins certain proteins that help move molecules across the cell membrane and are a part of facilitated diffusion
ion channel a form of passive transport that transports ions across the cell membrane
active transport when molecules move across the cell membrane from areas of low concentration to high concentration using ATP.
sodium-potassium pump an example of active transport in which the protein transports sodium and potassium ions through the cell membrane.
endocytosis a type of active transport in which cells ingest external fluids, macromolecules and large particles such as other cells. Then they form vesicles and they can enter the cells.
pinocytosis the transport of fluids of solutes (type of endocytosis)
phagocytosis the movement of large particles or whole cells (type of endocytosis)
exocytosis a type of active transport in which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle and then fuses with the membrane to get out of the cell (reverse of endocytosis)
Created by: elizrhys



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