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Chapter 9

Genetics The field of biology that studies how genes are transmitted from parent to offspring.
Heredity The transfer of traits from parent to offspring
Trait a genetically determined characteristic
Pollination When pollen is transferred from the anthers to the stigma
Self-Pollination When polisario occurs in the same plant
Cross- Pollination Pollination between the flowers of two plants
True Breeding Pure, always produce offspring with that trait
P Generation The breeding parents
F1 generation The offspring of the P generation
F2 Generation The second filial generation
Dominant A trait that masks or dominates another trait in the pair
Recessive The trait that is dominated and has no control over the outcome
Law of Segregation States that a pair of gametes is separated during the formation of gametes
Law of Independent Assortment State that factors separate independently during the formation of gametes
Molecular Genetics The study of structure and fiction of chromosomes and genes
Allele Each of an alternate form of a gene
Genotype An organisms genetic makeup
Phenotype An organisms appearance
Homozygous When both alleys i the pair are alike
Heterozygous When two alleles in the pair are different
Probability The likelihood that a specific event will occur
Monohybrid Cross A cross which only one characteristic is tracked
Punnet Square A diagram that shows possible genetic outcomes
Genotypic Ratio The ratio of genotypes that appear in offspring
Phenotypic Ratio The ratio of phenotypes that appear in offspring
Testcross A table that shows the phenotype of an individual whom expresses a dominant trait
Complete Dominance Where on allele is completely dominant over the other
Incomplete Dominance When the phenotype is determined by dominant and recessive traits
Codominace Occurs when both alleys in a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring
Dihybrid Cross A cross when two characteristics are tracked
Created by: nwbs



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