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Chapter 2 Cells Test

Flash Cards to Help Study for Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms

An Amoeba is a unicellular organism that moves using pseudopods
Can you see a unicellular organism WITHOUT a microscope? You cannot see a unicellular organism without a microscope.
What is phagocytosis? eating by creating false feet (pseudopods) to surround a prey and eventually take it in.
How does an amoeba get rid of excess water? a contractile vacuole forms around the water and eventually pumps out the water.
A pseudopod is an extension of the cytoplasm that helps an amoeba move and capture prey
Diffusion is the process of materials moving across a membrane from high to low concentration
Osmosis is the diffusion of water
Cilia hairlike structures that cover a unicellular organism that help it move by beating rhythmically like sets of oars on a boat
Stem cell An undifferentiated cell that can be used to make more cells
Phytoplankton a unicellular organism that can make its own food (photosynthesis)and creates oxygen
flagellum a whip-like tail that helps a unicellular organism move
pinocytosis a process by which a cell 'drinks' its prey.
xylem a specialized cell in plants that move water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves of a plant
phloem a specialized cell in plants that move carbohydrates from the leaves to the roots of a plant
Name the effects of dehydration darker more concentrated urine headaches dry mouth, eyes, and lips tiredness (fatigue) dizziness
What does MR GREEN stand for Movement, Reproduction, Growth, Response, Exchange of gases, Excrete Wastes, Nutrients
What human cells are responsible for Movement muscle cells and bone cells
What human cells are responsible for Reproduction sperm and egg cells
What human cells are responsible for Growth Stem cells
What human cells are responsible for Responding to the environment Nerve and brain cells
What human cells are responsible for Excreting Wastes Kidney cells,
What human cells are responsible for Exchanging Gases blood cells, lung cells
What human cells are responsible for getting Nutrients stomach cells, mucosal cells, cells that line the small and large intestine
What is a disadvantage of having specialized cells if there is a problem with the specialized cells, all the other cells in the multicellular organism are at risk
What is an advantage of having specialized cells the organism can be more complex; organism tasks can be carried out more efficiently.
How can unicellular organisms help humans In composters, they can break down organic material and release nitrogen for plants to use In some foods, like yogourt, bacteria can help humans digest food
What do guard cells do in plants They help to regulate gas exchange in plants and keep water vapour from leaving the plant when conditions are dry.
Why are unicellular organisms so small They cannot grow too big because when the cell is big, the surface of it (the cell membrane) cannot move material like oxygen and carbon dioxide quickly enough into and out of the cell.
Name a method of food preservation Freezing or refrigeration Dehydration Salting Pickling Canning Irradiation of food Carbonation
What is the lytic cycle Virus inserts its DNA into the cell to make the cell to make more copies of the virus. Eventually the cell membrane bursts, releasing the copies of the virus and killing the cell
What is the lysogenic cycle Virus DNA becomes part of the cell's DNA. Cell undergoes reproduction (cell division) many times to relate many cells with revised DNA. Eventually environmental trigger causes lytic cycle to start
What is an antigen marker on the outside of a cell that helps identify it - often a protein or a lipid
Broad spectrum antibiotic Acts like a terrorist and kills a wide variety of bacteria
Narrow spectrum antibiotic Acts like an assassin killing specific bacteria
Why do doctors prescribe broad spectrum antibiotics When they are not sure of the specific kind of bacteria that's causing infection. Infection could be serious enough that time is critical
Why do doctors prescribe narrow spectrum antibiotics Will only kill specific bacteria. Doctors must be sure of the actual bacteria species before they prescribe it.
Created by: shua
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