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Exam 4 Study Guide

In most food chains, what is the ultimate source of energy? sunlight
What is a photoautroph and what types of organisms are photoautrophs? photoautrophs= organisms that produce energy by photosynthesis. Types of photoautroph organisms: cyanobacteria, algae, and plants.
What is "photosynthesis"? a process that uses sunlight to synthesize foods form CO2 and water
What is "electromagnetic radiation"? a form of energy that travels through space in waves
What is a "photon"? a "packet of energy" (elementary particle of electromagnetic radiation)
What determines the amount of energy in a photon? the wavelength
What kinds of electromagnetic radiation are there? gamma rays, x-rays, microwaves, radio waves
How are they different in terms of wavelengths and energy? big waves=less energy (more red) small waves= more energy (more violet)
What specific kind of electromagnetic radiation do plants absorb and use for photosynthesis? infrared radiation
Photosynthesis pigments: chlorophyll=primary pigments carotenoids=secondary pigments
What colors of light do the chlorophyll pigments reflect as a color? green
What colors of light do the carotenoid pigments reflect as a color? yellow and orange
What colors of light do the pigments absorb for photosynthesis? violet, blue, and red
What are stomata? small openings on the bottom side of leaves that open and close to allow CO2 in and O2 out of leaf
Where is the stomata found? leaves of plants
What is the stomata function in a plant? transport gases and evaporates water out of leaves
What organelles performs photosynthesis? chloroplasts
Thylakoids within chloroplasts: What are they? a network of flattened membranes (look like coins)
What happens to water in the thylakoid? water splits and provides an electron to the electron transport chain
What enzyme is involved in thylakoid? water-splitting enzyme
What roles do the electron transport system and ATP synthase play in the thylakoid? the transport system pumps H+ ions into thylakoid and ATP synthase is a H+ ion channel that lets H+ flow through it
How are the energized electrons, H+ ions and oxygen produced in the light-dependent reactions? water is split
What happens to the energized electrons, H+ ions, ATP, and oxygen that are produced in the light-dependent reactions? electrons=transfer energy from sunlight to covalent bonds; H+ ions=breakdown of water; ATP=provide energy for covalent bonds; Oxygen=help make glucose
For what purpose is carbon dioxide (CO2) used in the Calvin Cycle? to supply carbon and oxgen to glucose
Where does the CO2 come form in the Calvin Cycle? air supplies
For what purpose are H+ ions, ATP, and high energy electrons from the light-dependent reactions used in the Calvin Cycle? to make glucose
What does the Calvin Cycle produce glucose
What happens to the glucose that is made during the Calvin Cycle? glucose is broken down by plants to produce ATP energy for plant cells
What are other molecules that can be make out of glucose? sucrose or starch
How are these other chemicals used by the plant cell? Sap moves sugar to different parts of plant; Starch is stored in seeds and in tubers; Sugar cane contains a lot of stored sucrose; Sucrose in the nectar of flower attracts pollinators
What is the summary formula for photosynthesis? Sunlight + 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the ultimate source of energy for most organisms on this planet? the sun
Created by: BrittBrat11



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