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Enzymes & Metabolism

Exam 4 Study Guide

What is "basal metabolic rate" (BMR)? the energy needed to maintain metabolism at rest
What is "metabolism"? all chemical reactions that keeps organisms alive
What is "anabolism"? synthetic reaction that form covalent bonds
What is "catabolism"? metabolic reactions that break covalent bonds
Which requires more energy- catabolic or anabolic reactions? catabolic
What is "activation energy"? amount of energy needed for chemical reactions to process
What forms of energy provide activation energy to chemical reactions? temperature, high pressure, or some other form of energy
What is a "catalyst"? a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy
What is an enzyme? biological catalyst that lower the amount of energy needed for the reaction
Why are enzymes called "biological catalysts"? because they "facilitate" catabolic and anabolic reactions without being used in process and speeds up the chemical reactions in the body
What effect do enzyes have on the activation energy of a chemical reaction? enzymes lower activation energy
What is meant by the "reactant(s)" in a chemical reaction? elements that change into other elements (substances)
What is meant by the "product(s)" from a chemical reaction? what the reactant changes into
What is the difference between anabolic and catabolic? anabolic creates complex materials form simple substances while catabolic breaks down and processes buildup (anabolic)
What is the enzyme's "substrate"? the reactant that enzymes act on
What is the enzyme's "active site"? the region where substrate molecules bind and undergo chemical reaction
How does enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction? the enzymes shape changes
How are enzymes named? usually named for their substrate or the reaction they facilitate
What biomolecule are most enzyme made of? Protein
Why is the shape of the enzyme so important? because it determines a proteins function
What kind of chemical bond helps hold together the 3-dimensional shape of the enzyme? hydrogen bonds
How does temperature and pH affect hydrogen bonding and therefore the shape of the enzyme? hydrogen bonding is formed at normal temperature and pH but breaks apart at high temperatures and extremes of pH
Why do Siamese cats have dark faces, ears, legs, and tail and a light colored body? because of genetic mutation (DNA change) that result in heat sensitivity making pigment melanin
How does high temperature or extreme pH affect the hydrogen bonding and the enzyme's shape? high temperature can break hydrogen bond interactions in the protein and change the shape of the protein
What does it mean when an enzyme is "denatured"? when heat or chemical reactions render the enzyme inactive
How does denaturation affect the protein's (enzyme's) function? by breaking the hydrogen bond makes the protein unable to form
What is the "biochemical pathway" and why are enzymes important to them? a different enzyme is used at each step in the pathway so if the enzyme is missing, the chemical reaction won't happen
Created by: BrittBrat11