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Micro Chapter 9 SG

Chapter 9 Study Guide

What does the science of genetics study? The inheritance of living organisms
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? Genotype- collection of specific genes that an organism contains. Phenotype- total expression of all the genes of an organism
What is the relationship between the genome, the chromosomes, and the genes? Genome is a total of all genetic infer contained by an organism. Chromosome is the structure that organizes the DNA. Gene is a subunit of a chromosome that contains specific trait info
How many genes do the smallest viruses have? 4-5
How many genes does a human cell have? 20,000-25,000
How many total chromosomes do humans have? 46
How many pair of chromosomes do humans have? 23
Describe the bacterial chromosome: Circular
What is the function of a histone protein? DNA wraps around it in eukaryotic chromosomes.
What is the difference between a haploid and diploid cell? Diploid cells have paired chromosomes and haploid cells only have one set
Who are the two individuals who won the Nobel Prize for discovering the structure of the DNA molecule? James Watson and Francis Clark
Describe the structure of the DNA molecule: Composed of two strands of nucleic acid that run antiparallel to each other in a double helix connected by hydrogen bonds
What does it mean that the two strands in DNA run antiparallel? One end is the 5' end and the other is the 3' end
Which molecule is found at the 5' end of DNA? Phosphate
Which molecule is found at the 3' end of DNA? -OH
What are the individual subunits that make up the DNA polymer? Nucleotides
What are the three parts of every nucleotide? Phosphate group, sugar, nitrogenous base
Which of the three parts of a nucleotide forms the "rungs in the ladder" of DNA? Nitrogenous base
What are the four nitrogenous bases of DNA? Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Which two of the four nitrogenous bases of DNA are always paired together? Guanine and cytosine
How many hydrogen bonds do each pair of nitrogenous bases have? Guanine and cytosine have three. Adenine and thymine have two
What is synthesized in replication, transcription, and translation? In replication, two new daughter strands of DNA are produced. Transcription is when a transcript of DNA is made by mRNA. Translation, the transcript is read.
Why is DNA replication termed a "semi-conservative" process? Each strand acts as a template for a new strand
What is the advantage of a semi conservative process? Allows for accurate replication
How many different enzymes are involved in DNA replication? 30
What is the advantage of having many A-T connections at the beginning of the replication process? Less energy is required to separate them
What action do helicases perform? Unwind the double helix and separate the strands of DNA
Can replication occur without an RNA primer? No
What is the major enzyme involved in DNA replication Polymerase III
Why does DNA replication have a leading strand and a lagging strand? Because only a small section of the DNA opens at a time
Which strand of DNA forms the Okazaki fragments? The segmented strand
Which type of RNA carries the code from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome in the cytoplasm? Messenger RNA (mRNA)
How many bases on the DNA does it take to code for one amino acid of a protein? Three consecutive
What is the set of three called that codes for one amino acid in the DNA? Triplet
How many possible triplets exist? 43 or 64
What are the three major differences between DNA and RNA? RNA is single-stranded, RNA replaces thymine with uracil, and the five carbon sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose
What is the major enzyme involved in RNA transcription? RNA polymerase
What do you call the three bases on the mRNA that correspond to the triplets on DNA? Codons
Which molecule brings the amino acids to the ribosomes? Transfer RNA (tRNA)
What do you call the bases on the tRNA that correspond to the codons on mRNA? Anticodon
What is found on each end of a tRNA molecule? One end has an anticodon complimentary to the codon on mRNA, one end has the two amino acid that corresponds to that anticodon.
How many tRNA molecules can attach to the ribosome at one time? Two
What is the name of the codon that translation always begin with? The "start" codon
What amino acid does the start codon code for? Methionine
What is the name of the codon that signals the protein is complete? Termination codon, "stop" codon
What is a mutation? A change in a nucleotide sequence
What are the two general causes of mutations? Errors in replication and exposure to known mutagens
What are the three types of point mutations? Spontaneous, induced, substitution
What are the three possible outcomes of substitution mutation? The new codon can code for the same amino acid, it could code for a different amino acid, and it could code for a termination codon
What would be the possible outcomes of an addition or deletion point mutation? Will shift each codon by one base, changes the entire reading frame of the mRNA
Would a protein be able to function after a frameshift mutation? Nearly always, no
What is synthesized by conjugation, transformation, and transduction? Conjugation- genetic transfer between bacterial cells. Transformation- transfer of naked DNA into a recipient cell. Transduction- a segment of DNA is carried from one bacterial cell to another by a bacterial virus a bacteriophage



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