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Year 9 Biology

Term 4, Biology,

What is the Central Nervous System (CNS) made up of? The Central Nervous System (CNS) is made up of your brain and spinal cord.
What is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) made up of? The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is made up of the nerves that carry messages to and from the CNS to the rest of your body including muscles, organs and more
What is a neurone? A neurone is a nerve cell that carries electrical messages called nerve impulses.
What is a neurone made of? A neurone is made of a cell body, dendrites, axon and knobs.
What are the two types of neurone? The two types of neurone are Motor Neurones and Sensory Neurones.
What are Motor Neurones? Motor Neurones carry messages from the CNS to effectors.
What are Sensory Neurones? Sensory Neurones carry messages from the cells in the sense organs (such as your eyes, ears, tongue and skin) to the brain and spinal cord.
What is your brain made up of? Your brain is made up of a cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla.
What is a cerebrum? The cerebrum part of the brain controls your conscious thoughts, controls the intentional (voluntary) movement of every body part, and receives sensory messages from each body part.
What is a cerebellum? It is responsible for coordination and balance.
What is a medulla? It controls the body's vital functions, such as breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Damage to the area can be fatal.
What is the Somatic Nervous System? The Somatic Nervous System collects information about their surroundings through sensory organs such as the eyes a nd ears.
What is the Autonomic Nervous System? The Autonomic Nervous System controls the beating of your heart, the movements of your food in your intestines, sweating and pupil size.
What is the Sympathetic Nervous System? The Sympathetic Nervous System is your fight or flight response. It speeds up the functions of the body and makes it work more efficiently. It is the system that prepares your body for emergencies by making you more alert and preparing your body to act.
What is the Parasympathetic Nervous System? The Parasympathetic Nervous System is your rest and digest response. It slows everything down. It is the system in control when you are resting.
Name two parts of the Autonomic Nervous System. Lungs, heart and stomach are each parts of the Autonomic Nervous System.
Explain why an injury to the left side of the brain often affects the right side of the body. Because your left side of your brain controls the right side of your body.
Describe the function of neurotransmitters. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell.
Contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The Sympathetic Nervous System prepares he body for intense physical activity and is often referred to as the fight-or-flight response. The parasympathetic nervous system has almost the exact opposite effect and relaxes the body.
Recall the term used to describe the cells that respond to hormones. The term used to describe the cells that respond to hormones is the hypothalamus.
Name the hormones that control glucose levels in the blood. Insulin.
List three endocrine glands and the hormones they produce. Adrenal Gland and Adrenaline, Hypothalamus, pituitary gland.
Define the term homeostasis. The process of maintaining a constant internal environment, (temperature, water content, available energy, available oxygen and concentration of wastes in the blood).
List three types of receptors found in skin. Touch, pain and temperature.
Name two parts of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System.
Compare the roles of a sensory neurone and a motor neurone. Motor neurones carry messages from the CNS to effectors. Effectors are muscles or glands (tissues that secrete chemicals) that put the message into effect. Sensory neurones carry messages from cells in the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord.
Recall the term used to describe the cells that respond to hormones. A Target Cell.
Name the hormones that control glucose levels in the blood. Insulin and Glucagon.
About 7 litres of blood is filtered by the kidneys in every hour. Calculate the number of times your blood would be filtered each day. Assume you have 5 litres of blood. 60 minutes divided by 7 = 8.6 minutes To filter 5 litres of blood = 8.6 x 5 = 43 minutes 60 x 24 = 1440 minutes per day 1440 divided by 43 = 33.5 times per day.
Discuss the need for two hormones to control glucose levels in the blood rather than just one. Because each one helps you whether your blood sugar level is too high or too low.
State the general name for organisms that cause disease. Pathogens.
Name the system of the body that fights disease. The Immune System.
State the function of antibiotics. Treatment of bacterial infections.
Outline the process used to make a vaccine. Taking a small amount of the poison produced by the bacterium and making it inactive. Your immune system responds by making antibodies which make you immune to the pathogen.
Explain how vaccines work. A small amount of a particular disease is injected into your system so your body can become immune to the pathogen.
Explain what it means to be immune to a disease such as tetanus. The next time your immune system meets the same pathogen, it is able to make the antibodies quickly and the pathogen is destroyed before it can make you unwell.
Explain why it is important that you wash your hands after playing with pets or going to the toilet. So you don't keep bacteria on your hands which can eventually get into your system.
Compare the way you become immune through natural reactions of your body and through administering a vaccine. With natural reactions, you have to get sick. A vaccine gives you the antibodies without having to go through being sick.
Created by: 011018



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