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A&P II Chapter 26 SG

GI Study Guide

Which type of epithelium lines most of the mucosa of the GI tract Simple columnar
Why are a few areas lined with stratified squamous epithelium? To withstand abrasion
Which of the three types of muscle forms the muscular is layer of the GI tract? Smooth muscle
What happens tWhat are the two layers of the peritoneum? Parietal and visceral
Which layer of the peritoneum forms the mesentery? Visceral
What is the function of the mesentery? Supports the GI tract muscles
Where is the greater momentum found? Extends off of the stomach and covers most of the abdominal organs
What does the greater momentum store? Adipose tissue
What are the two types of receptors in the GI tract? Mechano and chemo
What do mechanoreceptors detect? Stretch
List the three pairs of salivary glands: Parotid, submandibular, sublingual
What digestive enzyme is found in saliva? Salivary amylase
What is the action of salivary amylase? Breakdown of all of the starches
Describe the pharynx: A funnel shaped muscular passageway for food
Is the pharynx composed of skeletal or smooth muscle? Skeletal
What are the two sphincters of the esophagus? Superior and inferior
What is deglutition? Swallowing
What structure blocks the opening of the nasopharynx when swallowing? Uvula and soft palate
What blocks the larynx during swallowing? Epiglottis
What is the bite of food called after swallowing? Bolus
What are the four regions of the stomach? Cardiac region, fundus, body, pylorus
Where are the gastric glands of the stomach found? Deep in the mucosa of the gastric pits
How many different secretory cells are found in the gastric glands? Five
What product do surface mucous cells produce? Alkaline mucin
Why is the mucin alkaline? To prevent ulceration
What product do mucous neck cells produce? Acidic mucin
What product to parietal cells produce? Hydrochloric acid
What are two functions of HCl in the stomach? Kills microorganisms, and breaks down ingested tissue
What product do chief cells produce? Inactive zymogen granules
What product do g-cells produce? Gastrin
What is the bolus turned into in the stomach? Chyme
What are the three sections of the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are the two accessory organs of digestion? Liver and pancreas
Where does the small intestine begin? Duodenum
Where does the small intestine end? Ileum
What is the function of the villi in the small intestine? Increase surface area for absorption and secretion
What is the function of lacteals? Absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins
What are microvilli Extensions of the plasma membrane of simple columnar epithelial cells that increase surface area
What is the function of bile? Digests lipids
Which organ synthesizes bile? Liver
Where is bile stored? Gallbladder
What structure connects to the small intestine to allow the entry of bile? Common bile duct
What are the three general types of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas? Pancreatic amylase, lipase, and proteases
Where do pancreatic enzymes enter the small intestine? Hepatopancreatic ampulla
Where does the lg intestine begin? Cecum
Where does the lg intestine end? Rectum
What are the three sections of the large intestine? Cecum, colon, rectum
What structure is found at the cecum? Appendix
Which carbohydrate macromolecule can humans digest? Starch
Where does most protein digestion occur? Sm intesting
Where does most lipid digestion occur? Sm intestine
What substance converts lipids into micelle? Bile salts