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A&P II Chapter 24 SG

Urinary Study Guide

What are the four components of the urinary system? Two kidneys, two ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Are the kidneys involved in the synthesis of vitamin D? Yes
What stimulus causes the kidneys to produce erythropoeitin? Low blood oxygen levels
What effect does erythropoeitin have on the red bone marrow? It stimulates it to increase RBC formation
What stimulus causes the kidneys to produce renin? Low B/P
What gland rests on the superior side of the kidneys? Adrenal gland
Why are the kidneys considered to be retroperitoneal? Because they are located posterior to the parietal peritoneum
What are the two general regions of the sectioned kidney? The outer renal cortex and inner renal medulla
What is the structure in the kidney that collects the urine and delivers it to the ureter? Calyces
What is the structural and functional unit of the kidney? Nephron
Name the 5 parts of the nephron 1: Glomerulus 2: Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule 3: Proximal convoluted tubule 4: Distal convoluted tubule 5: Nephron loop (loop of Henle)
Which two parts of the nephron make up the renal corpuscle? Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
Which three parts of the nephron make up the renal tubule? PCT, loop of Henle, DCT
Describe the glomerulus: A tangled mass of capillaries
Which vessels supply the glomerulus? Afferent arterioles
Which vessels carry blood from the glomerulus? Efferent arterioles
Give two reasons why the glomerulus is especially leaky: The renal artery branches off of the aorta, so it is under maximal pressure; they are fenestrated capillaries
What components of the blood can cross the glomerulus? Plasma and dissolved substances
What components cannot cross the glomerulus? Erythrocytes and large plasma proteins
Where is the glomerular capsule located? It lies directly around/over the glomerulus
What is the difference between the visceral and parietal layers of the Bowman's capsule? The internal visceral layer is permeable, and the external parietal layer is impermeable
What are the cells called that make up the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule? Podocytes
What do pedicels of podocytes do? Wrap around the glomerular capillaries
What are spaces between pedicels called? Filtration slits
What are the three layers of the filtration membrane? 1> endothelium of glomerular capillaries, 2. the basement membrane of glomerular capillaries, 3. visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
When does the blood plasma start to become "filtrate?" Once it has crossed the filtration membrane
Where in the kidney is the PCT found? Cortex
What are the three sections of the nephron loop? Descending limb, hairpin turn, and ascending limb
Which part of the nephron loop heads into the medulla? Descending limb
Where in the kidney is the distal convoluted tubule found? Cortex
What structure does the DCT lead to? The collecting tubule
What structure do the collecting tubules and collecting ducts lead to? Renal pelvis
What structure does the renal pelvis lead to? Ureters
How much of the cardiac output goes to the kidneys? 20-25%
What are the two capillary beds that the efferent arterioles lead to? Peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta
What structure do the peritubular capillaries associate with? Proximal and distal convoluted tubules
What structure do the vasa recta associate with? Nephron loop
What are the three processes of urine formation? Filtration, reabsorption, secretion
What is filtration? BLood plasma moves out through the glomerulus and moves into Bowman's capsule, crosses the capsular space
What is reabsorption? Movement of substances from the tubular fluid back into the capillaries. All vital nutrients and most H2O gets reabsorbed
What is secretion? The movement of certain molecules out of th eperitubular capillaries and the vasa recta, directly into the tubules of the nephron.
Does secretion require ATP? Yes
What type of transport does secretion utilize? Active transport
How much filtrate is produced daily? 180L
Where in the nephron does most reabsorption of nutrients occur? PCT
Does each nutrient have its own transport protein? Yes
DO many proteins cross from the blood plasma into the kidney tubules? No
How much of the filtered glucose is reabsorbed? 100%
How much of the filtered water is reabsorbed in the PCT? 65%
Which limb of the nephron loop is permeable to water? Descending limb
Which limb of the nephron loop is impermeable to water? Ascending limb
Which limb of the nephron loop is impermeable to sodium? Descending limb
Which limb actively pumps sodium out of the tubule? Ascending limb
This system creates a very hypertonic environment in which part of the kidney? Medulla
How do the vasa recta capillaries travel with respect to the nephron loop? In the opposite direction to the fluid in the loop
Why is it important that the vasa recta capillaries travel in the opposite direction to the fluid of the loop? If they ran in the same direction, the concentration gradients would be diluted
What effect does ADH have on the collecting ducts? Makes them more permeable to H2O
What effect does aldosterone have on the collecting ducts? Sodium reabsorption
Does atrial natriuretic peptide cause water to be reabsorbed by the body or eliminated in the urine? Eliminated in the urine
If a molecule such as a drug is actively secreted into the urine to remove it form the body, where in the nephron does this occur? PCT
What is the minimum daily requirement of water that the kidneys require to eliminate wastes? 0.5L
Which structures conduct urine from the kidneys to the bladder? Ureters
What type of epithelium do the ureters have? Transitional
What are the three points that define the trigone of the bladder? Two ureter openings and the urethral opening
What is the name given to the three layers of smooth muscle of the bladder? Muscularis
What type of epithelium does the bladder have? Transitional
What structure conducts urine to the exterior of the body from the bladder? Urethra
How many sphincters does the urethra have? Two
Which one is voluntary? External urethral sphincter
Which one is involuntary? Internal urethral sphincter



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