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Biology Chap.8.1-8.3

Basic terms for Honors Biology, Grade 9

Rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins Chromosome
Proteins that help maintain the shape of the chromosomes and aid in packing DNA, and is wrapped in DNA Histone
One o the two identical halves that make up a chromosome, and form as the DNA copies itself before cell division Chromatid
The point where two chromatids are attached Centromere
The less tightly packed DNA-protein complex Chromatin
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism, and that may carry genes for other characteristics Sex Chromosome
All of the other chromosomes in an organism that are not sex chromosomes Autosome
The two copies of each autosome, which are the same size and shape and carry the same genes for that trait Homologous chromosome
The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species Karyotype
Cells that have two sets of chromosomes, and have two autosomes for each homologous pair
Sperm cells and egg cells are these cells, which contain only one set of chromosomes Diploid
The division of prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells Haploid
A process that results in new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell Binary Fission
The production of offspring from one parent Mitosis
Occurs during the formation of gametes, and reduces the chromosome number by half in new cells Asexual Reproduction
Haploid reproductive cells involved with meiosis Meiosis
The time between cell divisions, and divided into three other phases Gamete
e e
a Cytokinesis
The second phase of mitosis Prophase
b Spindle Fiber
c Metaphase
d Anaphase
e Telophase
f Cell Plate
g Synapsis
h Tetrad
i Crossing-over
j Genetic Recombination
k Independent Assortment
l Spermatogenesis
m Oogenesis
n Polar body
The reproduction with two parents Sexual Reproduction
Created by: EmilyEdwards