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Biology Ch. 8

TermDefinition
Chromosome In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
Histone A type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells
Chromatid One of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis
Centromere The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
Chromatin A portion of the cell nucleus made up of DNA and proteins; it is the carrier of the genes in inheritance
Sex Chromosome One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Autosome Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Homologous Chromosome Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis
Karyotype An array of the chromosomes found in an individual’s cells at metaphase of mitosis and arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
Diploid A cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
Haploid Describes a cell, nucleus, or organism that has only one set of unpaired chromosomes
Binary Fission A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
Mitosis In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
Asexual Reproduction Reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Meiosis A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells (gametes or spores)
Gamete A haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
Interphase A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
Cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasma of a cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
Prophase The first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes
Spindle Fiber One of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
Metaphase One of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator
Anaphase A phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate
Telophase The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
Cell Plate The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
Synapsis The pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
Tetrad The four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis
Crossing-over The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination
Genetic Recombination The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents
Independent Assortment The random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
Spermatogenesis The process by which male gametes form
Oogenesis The production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum
Polar Body The other three products of meiosis
Sexual Reproduction Reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite
Created by: HuffmanV20