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L Sci-Ch 6 #2

study guide

Explain the differences between genes and DNA. (ESSAY) Genes tell you traits; DNA is more detailed - DNA makes up genes.
What is made up of subunits called nucleotides? DNA
The 4 nucleotides of DNA are….. adenine and thymine (A & T); and cytosine and guanine (C & G)
The 4 nucleotides of RNA are…. adenine and uracil (A & U); and cytosine and guanine (C & G)
Determines how tall you are or whether your hair is curly or straight. proteins
Which pair of nucleotides in DNA pair together? adenine and thymine; cytosine and guanine
Which pair of nucleotides in RNA pair together? adenine and uracil; cytosine and guanine
Sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base is called….? a nucleotide
Who discovered the adenine in DNA always equals the thymine? Erwin Chargaff
Who used x-ray diffraction to take first image of DNA? Rosiland Franklin
What does DNA look like? a double helix (twisted ladder)
Where is DNA found in the cell? in nucleus/in bundles called chromosomes
Explain the difference between RNA and DNA. (ESSAY) RNA has one strand, DNA has two strands. RNA is a temporary copy of DNA
What is RNA? it is a mirror copy of DNA
Three nitrogenous bases form... codes for specific amino acids
A mutagen is…... physical or chemical agent that causes a mutation
A mutation is…... caused by a mutagen or random error
Describe the insertion mutation a base is added
When scientists transfer individual genes from one organism to another. genetic engineering
What is the first step in making a protein? RNA copying DNA
Organelle where proteins are synthesized by mRNA and tRNA ribosome
String of nucleotides that gives cell information on how to make specific trait gene
Material is made of amino acids that causes most of the differences we see in organisms. protein
DNA is split down the middle during….. replication
Chemical parts that are transferred by tRNA and matched to mRNA amino acids
Makes up each nucleotide in a DNA molecule sugar, phosphate, base
Part of a chromosome gene
Created by: msparks