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Chapter 6 objectives

Describe the general functions of the muscular system. Participate in every activity that requires movement. Some are voluntary and some are involuntary.
Define origin. Joins to a bone that remains relatively stationary.
Define insertion. Attaches to another bone across a joint.
Explain the structural arrangement of a muscle. Arranged in bundles called fascicles, each composed of many muscle cells and each surrounding by a sheath of fascia. The fascia is join together to become the tendon, which attaches the muscle to bone.
Describe the structural arrangement of various levels of a muscle. A single muscle cell contains many individual myofibrils and has more than one nucleus.
Explain how nerve activation leads to calcium release within a muscle cell. The release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction causes an electrical impulse to be generated in the muscle cell plasma membrane. The electrical impulse is carried to the cell's interior. The electrical impulse triggers the release of calcium.
Explain the events of muscle contraction. Must be activated by a nerve, nerve activation increases the concentration of calcium, the presence of calcium permits contraction.
Explain the energy sources for muscle. ATP
Explain how the degree of nerve activation influences force. Our strength and ability to move depend on how forcefully our muscles contoract
Describe how frequency of stimulation affects muscle cell contractile force. More than one stimulus in a short time may produce summation and ultimately a tetanic contraction
Define slow twitch fibers. Break down ATP slowly, so they can contract slowly. Contain many mitochondria, well supplied blood vessels.
Define fast twitch fibers. Break down ATP more quickly, so they can contract faster. Contain many mitochondria, and fewer blood vessels.
What is strength training? Involves doing exercises that strengthen specific muscles. Generally short, intense exercises such as weight lifting. Builds more myofibrils in fast twitch fibers which causes the fibers to store more glycogen & creatine phosphate as quick energy sources.
What is aerobic training? Involves activities which the body increases its oxygen intake to meet the increased demands for oxygen by muscles. The number of mitochondria in muscle cells and amount of myoglobin available to store oxygen both increases.
What is skeletal muscle? Interact with the skeleton and causes bones to move (or prevent from moving) All movements are performed by skeletal muscle either contracting or relaxing.
What are synergetic muscles? Muscle groups that work together to create the same movement.
What are antagonistic muscles? Muscles that oppose each other.
Define cardiac & smooth muscle. Involuntary muscles. Can contract entirely on their own without the stimulation by nerves. Both joined by gap junctions.
Created by: dconti



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