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Chap11 Microbiology

Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
What are the historical microbial control methods? salting , smoking, pickling, drying and exposing food, clothing and bedding to sunlight
what are the four possible outcomes of microbial control outside the body? sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, and decontamination
the destruction of all microbial life sterilization
destroys most microbial life, reducing contamination or inanimate surfaces disefection
also called degermation, is the same as disinfection but on a living surefaces antisepsis
also called sanitation, the mechanical removal of most microbes from an animate or inanimate surface decontamination
what are the primary targets of microbial control? microorganisms capable of causing infection or spoilage(slows down the growth) Constantly present in the external environment and on the human body contains mixtures of microbes
is considered the most resistant microbial entities destruction of endospores is the goal of the sterlization bacterial endospores
any material that has been subjected to this process is said to be sterile(trying to remove everything) sterilized products are essential to human well being surgical instruments syringes commercially packed foods sterilization
the use of a physical process or a chemical agent(disinfectant) to destroy vegetative pathogens but not bacterial endospores disinfectants are normally only used on inanimate objects(nonliving) disinfection
the growth of microorganisms in blood and other tissues sepsis
any practice that prevents the entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues and prevents infection asepsis
sterile methods that exclude all microbes aseptic techniques
application of chemical agents(ANTISEPTIC) to exposed body surfaces and surgical incisions to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens antisepsis
chemical agents that kill microorganism germicides and microbicide
a chemical that destroys bacteria except for these in the endospore stage bactericide
kills fungal spores hypae and yeast fungicide
inactivates viruses especially on living tissues virucide
capable of killing endospores sporicide
prevents the growth of bacteria on tissues or objects in the enviornment bacteristatic agents
inhibits fungal growth fungistatic agents
chemicals used to control microorganisms in the body (antiseptics and drugs) AGENTS WILL KILL microbistatic agents
ant cleansing techniques that mechanically removes microbes and debris sanitization
a soap or detergent used to sanitize sanitizer
reduction of the number of microbes on the skin involves scrubbing the skin or immersing it in chemical or both enulsifies oils on the outer cutaneous layer antisepsis/degermation
expected to come into contract with sterile tissues critical medical devices
come into contact with mucosal membranes semicritcal medical devices
those that do not touch noncritical medical devices
what is microbial death death of microbial organism
death of microbial organisms harder to detect no conspicuous vital signs lethal agents do not alter the overt appearance of microbial cells loss of movement cannot be used to indicate death special qualifications are needed to define and delineate microbial death
what are the factors of death number of microorganisms nature of the microbes in the population type of microbial death temperature and pH of the environment concentration of the agent mode of action of the agent presence of solvents, interfering organic matter and inhibitors
cellular targets of physical and chemical agents the cell wall the cell membrane cellular synthetic processees (DNA,RNA) proteins
polar molecules with hydrophillic and hydrophobic regions this opens up leaky spots that allow injurious chemicals to seep into the cell and important ions to leak out surfactants
the normal 3D configuration of proteins that allows proper function NORMAL (Native State)
flattened/ wont function disruption of proteins, rendering them nonfunctional denature
what are the methods of physical control? heat is the most widely used methods of microbial control radiation filtration untrasonic waves cold
temperature is 121 take is to sterilize hot water, boiling wateles r, steam ranges from 60*C to 135*C Moist Heat
the shortest length of time required to kill all test microbes at a specified temp thermal death time
the lowest temperature required to kill a microbes in a sample in 10 minute thermal death point
preserves food dehydrates desiccation
energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity through matter or space radiatrion
radiation suitable for microbial control gamma rays xrays ultraviolet radiation
ranges from 100 nm to 400nm most lethal from 240 nm to 280 nm peak at 260 ultraviolet radiation
non-ionizing radiation initially absorbed by DNA forms pyrimidine dimers UV Rays
an effective method to remove microbes from air and liquids water purification filtration
what are the modes of action of germicides are to attack cellular targets proteins nucleric acids cell walls cell membranes
fluorine, bromine, chlorine, iodine active ingredients in 1/3 of all antimicrobial chemicals halogens
broadly used in industry and allied health household bleach is a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite hypochlorite
used as an alternative to PURE CHLORINE IN WATER treatment chloramines
first used as the major antimicrobial chemical toxic and irritating side effects PHENOL
destroys vegetative bacteria, fungi, and some viruses too toxic to use as antiseptics PHENOLICS
only ethyl and isopropyl alcohol are appropriate for microbial control DESTROYS VEGETATIVE MICROBIAL FORMS BUT NOT ENDOSPORES KNOW THIS
germicidal effects are due to toxic reactive oxygen H2O2(hydrogen peroxide)
skin and wound cleansing, bedsore care, mouthwashes antiseptic
soft contacts, surgical implants, plastic equipment etc disinfectant
sufactants are what? detergents
limited microbial power activity due to amhipathic nature of the molecule sufactants
toxic in minute quantities oligodynamic
sterilizes and disinfects plastic and delicate hospital instruments ethylene oxide
less toxic safer than ETO for sterlization of foods propylene oxide
blocking cell wall synthesis digesting the cell wall breaking down the surface of the cell wall damages to the cell wall
know this a cell with a damaged cell wall is fragile and becomes lysed easily
know this detergents and alcohols disrupt the cell wall
KNOW THIS the cell wall membrane and viral envelope are composed of lipids and proteins
disruption of the cell membrane causes loss of selective permeability loss of vital molecules
Created by: CaylahMone