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BI Exam 3

TermDefinition
conjugation The process by which one bacterium passes genetic information to another bacterium is called _____________
transduction The process by which bacteria become genetically altered (recombined with other DNA) by receiving DNA delivered by a virus is called ____________
plasmid Bacteria contain a single, large, naked chromosome, but may possess an additional small loop of DNA, called a __________
conjugation Therefore, bacteria may share plasmids in a one-way transfer called ________________
transformation Bacteria are marvelous in they may also acquire plasmid DNA found free in their environment by the process called ___________
transduction Furthermore, bacteria may acquire bacteria from the transfer of DNA by means of a virus, a process called ______________
restriction The molecular scissors that cut DNA into fragments are called _________________ enzymes
protect bacteria from the harm of viruses What is the function of restriction enzymes in nature?
short DNA DNA can migrate in a gel under electrical current, but the speed of migration is affected by the length of the DNA. Therefore, the relative size of DNA that travels the fastest and therefore the longest distance in a gel in a given amount of time is
Bt crops What name is given to genetically modified crops made transgenic by a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis?
primers The short, single strands of DNA used to target specific regions of DNA to be replicated during PCR are called _________
polymerase chain reaction Translate the abbreviation PCR
Selects genome segments to analyze then Amplifies these segments from tiny amounts of source DNA What does PCR do?
primers In PCR, DNA polymerase replicates DNA. But, in order to do so DNA polymerase requires ______ in order to begin replicating DNA.
primers Only DNA marked by ________ is replicated
protein The DNA virus below has an outer coat made of ___________
membrane The RNA virus (retrovirus) has an outer ____________ derived from the host cell
reverse transcriptase Name of enzyme in retroviruses that constructs DNA from viral RNA template once inside a host cell
DNA Once inside the host cell retrovirus RNA is converted into _______
transcribes and translates The host cell then _________ and _______ the genetic instructions (now in DNA form) of the virus
transgenic ___________ bacteria produce human insulin
genetically modified organisms Translate the abbreviation GMO
DNA Polymerase that is resistant to heat What relevance does Thermus aquaticus have for biotechnology?
Yellowstone National Park Where was T. aquaticus discovered?
ability to insert genes into tissues giving problems What is gene therapy?
nondisjunction The failure of homoloqous chromosomes to separate during meiosis is termed ______________________.
red/green color blindness, hemophilia Give an example of an X-linked genetic disorder.
missing a chromosome or having too many What is aneuploidy?
XXX, XXY, down syndrome, etc. What human genetic conditions did we cover that are the results of aneuploidy?
count the chromosomes and diagnose conditions What is the purpose of karyotype analysis?
XXX, XXY, down syndrome, etc. What human genetic conditions we covered are the result of X-linked genes (alleles)?
huntingtons, progeria, PKU What are the autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant human genetic disorders we covered for Exam 3?
geology The Theory of Uniformity by Charles Lyell comes from what branch of natural science?
4.6 BYA How old is Earth?
differential reproductive success Three words that define natural selection
natural selection According to Darwin, the mechanism driving evolutionary change is ________________
directional When microbes become resistant to antibiotics, which mode of natural selection is at work?
African finch What example was given in class (also in your textbook) of disruptive selection?
stabilizing Which mode of selection favors the intermediate phenotype?
theory of evolution Name of theory that explains biological diversity: _____________________
Wallace Who wrote to Darwin in 1858 & explained natural selection?
Lemarck Who proposed “Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics” as a theory of evolution?
homologous structures Morphological divergence from an ancestral design produces
convergence Morphological _________ produces analogous structure
microevolution Genetic change in populations as measured by changing allelic (gene) frequencies is a scale of evolution known as _______________________________
descent with modification The meaning of extant is
What are the three groups of extant mammals and their features as we covered?
Which of the three groups of extant mammals appears first (oldest) in the fossil record?
Attributes that increase reproductive success? Fitness in evolution is always which below: Attributes that increase size? Attributes that decrease size? Attributes that increase an elder’s lifespan? Attributes that increase physical strength? Attributes that increase reproductive success?
All are true, depending on the situation Which may lead to increase reproductive success? Increase in speed of four-legged animal. Increase in water retention in desert plant. Increase in sense of smell in a wild dog. Increase in effective pollination between flowers.
A). Sickle Cell Disease B). Cystic fibrosis C). PKU, Phenylketonuria Name three Autosomal recessive disorders
Phenylalanine 1 of 8 essential amino acids
Phenylketonurics excess dietary Phenylalanine (Phe) leads to mental retardation
Urea (safe waste) Normally: Phe with Enzyme A
Phe Phenylketone (toxic waste) Phe without Enzyme disrupts brain
Huntington Disease, Progeria Autosomal Dominant disorders
Spontaneous mutation Huntington is sometimes a genetic disease that is not inherited. How?
Progeria always from mutation. The gene codes for a protein that holds the nucleus together. Apparently the egg or sperm contained the defective gene acquired by mutation.
John Tacket and Megan Nighbor two examples of people with progeria
SRY Y carries the _________ gene- for maleness
Hermaphrodites male & female in same body, No sex chromosomes. ex. Slugs & earthworms
speciation Creates new species
Turner Syndrome XO, 2n – 1 = 45 sterile, short females
XXX condition ~normal female
XXY Klinefelter syndrome
Low testosterone at puberty interferes with sexual development
XYY condition Super Male
Down Syndrome Trisomy 21
nondisjunction one cause of abnormal chromosome numbers
polyploidy extreme case of nondisjunction = 3 or more sets of chromosomes
X-linked recessive disorders gene is on the X chromosome
hemophilia Proteins fail to clot blood
Noncellular acellular
viruses Acellular; Tiny particles w/no organelles or ribosomes; Bits of DNA or RNA and Protein; Often w/membrane, “envelope,” from host
DNA viruses core of DNA surrounded by protein coat; Host cell transcribes & translates
producing viral proteins & viral DNA (builds new viruses), Leads to host cell death Host cell transcribes & translates Viral DNA
A “bacteriophage” a virus that kills bacteria.
AIDS virus (HIV) example of RNA/retrovirus
Membrane allows entry into host (has “keys” to gain entry); The enzyme (reverse transcriptase); Host cell transcribes/translates this DNA creating new viruses Functions of RNA/retrovirus
bacteria Simpler than eukaryotic cells • Useful in food industry (cheese, et al.) • Grown for antibiotics • Used in Biotechnology • Some are pathogens of animals or plants
chromosome large circular loop of DNA
plasmids small loops of DNA
fission cell division
transformation taking up DNA from the environment
transduction transfer of DNA by means of a virus
conjugation direct transfer of a plasmid betweet cells
restriction enzymes cell defense against virus infection; Tool to cut specific genes out of one species and splice into another
Transgenic organisms have been given a foreign gene
Selective breeding programs, bioechnology methods of gene transfer
Selective breeding programs limited to “w/in species” [intra-specific] transfer
biotechnology 1) Isolate gene of interest & insert it into a virus, making it transgenic 2) Transgenic vector (virus) • inserts gene into animals & plants Inserted gene may disrupt other genes
CRISPR edits genes in place (no gene insertions, no disruptions)
gene therapy insert healthy genes into selected tissues of patient
"roundup ready" crops Gene from Salmonella protects against Roundup
Xenotransplantation animal organs put in humans
genome All DNA in a set of chromosomes
2 (one from mom, and one from dad) how many genomes do humans have?
junk DNA Ex. short tandem repeats – non-coding, highly variable regions. Ex. TTTTCTTTTCTTTTC, 3 repeats
genomics science of sequencing & comparing genomes
eugenics genetic enhancement of human race; ex. eliminate hereditary disorders by limiting reproductive rights
Ebola virus Similar to retrovirus but with “negative-sense” RNA, i.e. RNA is copied directly to mRNA & translated by host
1. Species related by common ancestry 2. Change through time accrues in populations 3. The main cause of evolution is natural selection Darwinism claims
Lamarck's “Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics” Organisms direct change by their own efforts; Explains adaptations, but offers no mechanism of change
Darwin and Wallace Evolution by Natural Selection Founded by 2 people
Darwin On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Lyell's Principles of Geology • Included “Theory of Uniformity”
Theory of Uniformity Geological processes uniform through time
natural selection and mutation What mechanism explains the diversity of life?
fossils extant forms descended from extinct forms
Malthus' Essay on the Principle of Population Human suffering, poverty, death due to increasing population competing for limited resources.
morphological variations Differences in color, shape, form [Importance of Taxonomy]
physiological variations Growth rates; chemical tolerance, etc
artificial selection we breed other species for selected traits
differential reproductive success results from the interaction of organisms with their environment
population group of individuals of same species
Gould A paleontologist, Wrote popular books including: Wonderful Life
gene flow alleles gained/lost as individuals migrate
directional selection favors an extreme phenotype; Occurs when environments (situations) change – Pests w/ pesticides-- chance mutation gives resistance – Bacteria evolve resistance to antibiotics
disruptive selection intermediate phenotype not favored & 2 extremes favored
stabilizing selection As mutations and gene flow create extreme phenotypes, selective forces eliminate their success; favors intermediate phenotype, extremes ill-favored
sexual dimorphism males and females vastly different
macroevolution changes accrue to new species, new kingdoms of life
Archaeopterix both birds and reptiles characters
biogeography geographical distribution of plants & animals
monotremes egg laying mammals
marsupials immature young develop in a pouch
placental mammals unborn nourished in uterus; more developed at birth. Most advanced mammals.
Homologous structures structures w/ morphological divergence from an ancestral design
vestigial organs structures reduced in size & of little (or modified) function
Ontogeny embryonic development
Recapitulates replays
Phylogeny evolutionary history
Evolutionary Developmental Biology looks for genes & their chemical processes that control body part development and placement during the embryo stages
molecular biology Genetic code shared by all life – Molecules more similar in close relatives
Created by: pace_sauce