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EBR EMS Chapter 16 Definitions

anabolism cells making complex molecules from simpler compounds; opposite of catabolism
assimilation when food molecules enter the cell and undergo chemical changes
avitaminosis vitamin deficiency
basal metabolic rate number of calories of heat that must be produced per hour by catabolism to keep the body alive, awake, and comfortably warm
calorie heat unit; the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree C
carbohydrate loading the method used by athletes to increase the stores of muscle glycogen, allowing more sustained aerobic exercise
catabolism breakdown of food compounds or cytoplasm into simpler compounds; opposite of anabolism, the other phase of metabolism
citric acid cycle the second series of chemical reactions in the process of glucose metabolism; an aerobic process; also called the Krebs cycle
electron transport system cellular process within mitochondria that transfers energy from high-energy electrons from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to ATP molecules so that the energy is available to do work in the cell
glycogenesis formation of glycogen from glucose or from other monosaccharides, fructose, or galactose
glycolysis the first series of chemical reactions in glucose metabolism; changes glucose to pyruvic acid in a series of anaerobic reactions
hypervitaminosis condition of having too few vitamen molecules in the body for normal function
kilocalorie 1000 calories
metabolism complex process by which food is used by a living organism
plasma protein any of several proteins normally found in the plasma; includes albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
thermoregulation maintaining homeostasis of body temperature
total metabolic rate total amount of energy used by the body per day
vitamin organic molecules needed in small quantities to help enzymes operate effectively
Created by: hjkruse