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Ch. 5 Vocab.

Gregor Mendel Known as the "Father of Genetics"
heredity The passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
dominant trait Even if only one of these alleles is present, this trait will always show in the organism
recessive trait This trait only appears if both alleles of this trait are present
gene A set of instructions for an inherited trait
allele One of the alternative forms of a gene that determines a characteristic, such as hair color
phenotype The physical trait that you can see
genotype The combination of your alleles for a trait
heterozygous/hybrid When the combination of alleles are different such as Tt or Pp
homozygous/purebred When the combination of alleles are the same such as TT, tt, PP, or pp
probability The likelihood or chance that an event will occur.
self-pollinating plants Plants that have both male and female reproductive structures, are also known as "true-breeding"
cross-pollination plants When pollen from one plant is used to fertilize another plant.
The ratio that Gregor Mendel found in the second generation of his experiments when he crossed two hybrid plants together. 3:1 ratio
Punnett Square Used to organize all of the possible combinations of offspring from particular parents.
selective breeding When humans use naturally occurring genetic patterns to pass desired traits on to generations of plants and animals.
inbreeding When we selectively breed in a family line of an organism for a specific trait. This reduces the number of genetic differences.
hybridization When breeders or scientists cross different organisms in hopes of producing offspring with the best traits of each organism.
genetic engineering When scientists remove a bit of genetic material from one organism and insert it into anotherr
cloning When scientists use genetic information from a single cell of an organism to produce another organism with the same genetic information (makes an exact copy)
sex chromosomes Chromosomes that carry genes that determine if an organism's sex is going to be male or female.
incomplete dominance When the phenotypes of two alleles blend together such as the red snapdragon and the white snapdragon making a pink snapdragon.
codominance When an organism has two different alleles of a gene and shows both phenotypes at the same time such as with tabby cats.
polygenic When inherited traits are defined by more than one gene.
Created by: figueroad



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