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Living Environment

autosome chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; also called autosomal chromosome
diploid term used to refer to a cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
egg a sex cell produced by a female
fertilization the process in sexual reproduction in which male (sperm) and female (egg) reproductive cells join to form a new cell
disjunction the normal separation or moving apart of chromosomes toward opposite poles of the cell during cell division
gametes an egg or sperm cell; a sex cell
haploid/monoploid refers to a cell that contains only a single set of genes (chromosomes)
homologous chromosomes chromosomes where one set comes the male parents and one set comes from the female parent
karyotype micrograph of the complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged in order of decreasing size
meiosis the process that results in the production of sex cells (sperm and egg)
oogenesis production of egg or ovum
ovum (ova) the largest cell visible to the naked eye. It is about 0.1 mm in size in humans. Made in the ovary and released into the fallopian tube during ovulation. It is a haploid cell so that when a sperm cell fertilizes it, it forms a diploid zygote
sexual reproduction a method of reproduction that involves two parents to produce offspring that are genetically different from either parent
sex chromosomes one of two chromosomes that determines an individual’s sex
spermatogenesis the process occurring in the male gonad of sexually reproducing organism where the undifferentiated male germ cells develop into spermatocytes which then transform into spermatozoa
somatic cells all body cells of an organism, apart from the sperm and egg cells (ex: internal organs, skin, bones, blood, connective tissue); these cells contain a full set of chromosomes whereas reproductive cells contain only half
synapsis the pairing of homologous chromosomes during the meiotic phase of cell division
sperm male sex cell
tetrad structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
zygote cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm
variation modification in structure, form or function in organism; in genetics it refers to an individual that has characteristics different from the others of the same kind
crossing over process during meiosis where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material
clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
Created by: WGZimm