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BI Lab 8

interphase phase in which the cell can be considered to be preparing to divide
G1, first growth stage consists of increased metabolic activity and replication of organelles
S (synthesis) phase when DNA is duplicated
G2, second growth phase when protein synthesis occurs to make components that are essential for mitosis
mitosis division of the nuclear contents
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm
G0 refer to a cell that has not yet become committed to going through cell division again
chromosome consists of two sister chromatids joined by a centromere
sister chromatids joined by a centromere
centromere join two sister chromatids
mitotic spindle on either side of the centromere, microtubules attach the chromosomes to the __________________ during the mitotic phase
mitosis nuclear division
prophase the duplicated chromosomes condense and become visible as distinct darkly stained bodies in the nuclear area
nuclear envelope the membrane that encloses the nucleus, breaks down
metaphase the chromosomes align along the cell's equator or metaphasic plate
anaphase the double-stranded chromosomes are pulled apart at their centromeres
single-stranded chromosome migrates toward the opposite pole of the cell
telophase the single-stranded chromosomes reach opposite poles of the cells and nuclear envelopes reappear around each set of single-stranded chromosomes
cytokinesis cytoplasmic division, actually begins in anaphase, completion occurs following telophase
meristems regions of active cell division that result in the elongation of tips in stems and toots, and in the expansion of girth in woody plants
allium onion root tip
parent cell go through a series of stages to produce two new daughter cells
daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original parent cell
fertilization joining of sperm and ovum
zygote diploid cell that is produced when the sperm and ovum join together
cleavage cell divisions, no growth occurs
blastula ball of cells in which repeated mitotic divisions take place
cleavage furrow helps accomplish cytokinesis in animal cells
centrioles involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and in the completion of cytokinesis in animal cells
embryology animal development
sygote fertilized egg
growth occurs when the cells get larger and continue to divide
differentiation refers to the specialization of cells
morphogenesis occurs when the body begins to take shape
two-cell stage of development in which the fertilized egg or zygote divides
four-cell stage of development in which the two-cell stage divides
morula continued division of the cell leads to this many-celled stage which resembles a raspberry
blastula the morula becomes a hollow ball of cells
gastrula blastula later develops into this
unfertilized egg can be identified by the large nucleus and darkly stained nucleolus
haploid the egg only contains half of the chromosome number of the parent
diploid zygote egg fertilization by a haploid sperm results in this
fertilization membrane forms around the egg to prevent other sperm from entering it, but this membrane is not visible on all slides because it may have been destroyed when the slides were prepared
cleavage consists of mitotic cell division without growth in cell size
yolk the only food source during cleavage
blastomeres individual cells in each stage, are getting smaller
eight-cell stage cleavage of the four-cell stage results in this
blastocoel inside the blastula is this fluid-filled cavity
invagination gastrulation, signals the beginning of the gastrula stage; the cells at one end of the blastula begin to push into the blastocoel as they divide
archenteron the invagination consists of a slight indention that grows and forms this primitive gut
blastopore the opening of the archenteron
deuterostomes the blastopore forms the anus
ectoderm will form the outer skin and the nervous systerm
mesoderm will give rise to the muscles, connective tissues, and reproductive organs
endoderm will form the digestive tract and associated organs
Created by: pace_sauce



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