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Honors Bio H.W #3

TermDefinition
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) A nucleotide that is essential to cellular respiration.
Amino Acid Contains a carbon bond with four functional groups. One example of an amino acid is glycine
Carbohydrate The molecules composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
Cellulose Makes up the cell wall
Chitin A polysaccharide in which glucose subunits bear a nitrogen-containing group
Dehydration Synthesis A chemical reaction when two molecules are joined by a
covalent bond and h2o is withdrawn from the end result.
Denatured To disrupt the second protein sequence while not touching anything else.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) The genetic code found in the nucleus of a cell that
tells all the secrets of life for the organism it is for.
Disaccharide When two monosaccharides are linked
Disulfide Bridge The bonds between sulfur and other cysteines.
Enzyme Proteins that guide almost all the chemical reactions inside of the cells
Fat Lipids that are formed by glycerol
Fatty Acid Long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxylic acid group at one end.
Functional Group Groups of atoms that determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of the molecules.
Glucose Sugar
Glycerol A three carbon molecule that is used to form fats
Glycogen An energy storage molecule that is most often used in animals.
Helix A spiral shape.
Hydrolysis When something is broken apart by water.
Inorganic Something that does not contain carbon. One example of an inorganic compound is water.
Lactose A form of sugar that is often found in milk or dairy products. Contains Glucose and galactose.
Lipid A fat or fatty substance. Some examples of lipids are fats, oils, and waxes.
Maltose glucose plus glucose.
Monomer individual subunits ( Greek: one part)
Monosaccharide carbohydrates that are consist of just one sugar molecule ( Greek for “single sugar”).
Nucleic acid long chains of similar subunit called nucleotides.
Nucleotide a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group, have three structures
Oil formed by dehydration synthesis from three fatty acid subunits and one molecule of glycerol.
Organic molecules that have a carbon skeleton and contain some hydrogen atoms.
Peptide a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain.
Peptide bond a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water.
Phospholipid similar to oil, except one of the three fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group with a short, polar functional group attached to the end.
Pleated sheet polypeptide chains that repeatedly fold back upon themselves, with hydrogen bonds holding adjacent segments of the polypeptide together.
Polymer long chains of monomers.
Polysaccharide a polymer of many monosaccharides.
Primary structure sequence of amino acids that make up the protein.
Protein molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids.
Quaternary structure individual polypeptides that sometimes linked together, forming a fourth level of protein organization.
Ribonucleic acid ( RNA) copied from the DNA in the nucleus of each cell that are formed by chains of ribose nucleotides.
Saturated contained the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms
Secondary structure interaction of the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor residues of the repeating peptide unit.
Starch a polysaccharide.
Steroid synthesized from cholesterol, that have a similar, nonpolar molecule structure ( compare the carbon rings).
Sucrose glucose plus fructose , used as an energy storage molecule in sugarcane and sugar beets.
Sugar composed of two monosaccharides.
Tertiary Structure three-dimensional structures that determine that final configuration of the polypeptide.
Triglyceride chemical name given to fat and other in the same structure.
Unsaturated double bonds between some carbons and consequently fewer hydrogens, the fatty acids are said to be _______.
Wax chemically similar to fats, but not as a food source.
Created by: maddieereynolds