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Nucleic Acids

Midterm 2 Biochemistry

Glycosidic bonds are between nucleic acid _____ and _____. nitrogen, ribose
Pyrimidines are always ____ conformation while purines are only sometimes. anti
T or F: Purines are more sensitive to acidic pH and hydrolysis than pyrimidines. True
The linkages in nucleotide polymers are _____. phosphodiester linkages
How is DNA stabilized? hydrogen bonds and base pair stacking, charge-charge interactions
T or F: The less GC pairs in a DNA molecules, the harder it is to melt. False
What is the importance of the major groove in B-DNA? Many DNA binding proteins interact with bases here.
Supercoiling Segments of DNA are over or underwound.
_____ is the most adundant type of RNA in the cell. rRNA
What doesmRNA last such a short time in the cell? Single strands are degraded quickly; acts as a method to control protein production
Spliceosome Clips out introns and sews together exons
rRNA has _____ and _____ properties. catalytic, scaffholding
Which type of RNA binds to mRNA for degradation? siRNA (silencing)
Which type of RNA is used to build unusual bases? snRNA
Explain why RNA is more easily degraded than DNA. RNA is more chemically unstable - at a high pH, the phosphate bond in RNA is readily cleaved, forming a cyclic intermediate in which water can attack and degrade. DNA does not have a free hydroxyl, so this does not occur in DNA.
Restriction endonucleoases A mechanism used by bacteria which restrict incorporation of foreign DNA into the genome.
Restriction endonucleases bind to ______ sequences. palindromic
How does the bacterial cell keep its own DNA from being degraded? The DNA of the bacteria is methylated.
How are restriction endonucleases used for human use? Used to insert desired DNA sequences into bacterial plasmids.
Intercalating agent An aromatic compound which is inserted in between DNA bases, altering the structure.
How can DNA be renatured? By cooling denatured DNA or by re-association and zippering
______ and ______ can remove or reintroduce supercoils into DNA toposomerases, gyrases
Name the steps in synthesizing polymers of DNA. 1. dimethoxytrityl group blocks the 5'-OH of the first nucleotide 2. Coupling reaction adds the second base 3. Capped with acetic anhydride 4. Phosphate linkage added between N1 and N2
Created by: goberoi