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Biology Midterm

scientific method Title, statement of problem, hypothesis, procedure, data, conclusion
dependent variable vs. independent variable Dependent variable- What we measure. What has changed because of the independent variable. Independent variable- What we are testing. (What we add or take away.)
Accept/Reject Hypothesis - Accept hypothesis after experiment if data proves hypothesis true. - Reject hypothesis after experiment if data proves hypothesis false.
What are protons, neutrons, and electrons? Electron- negative charge, surrounds nucleus Neutron- no charge (neutral), in nucleus Proton- positive charge, in nucleus. Protons = atomic number, # protons + # neutrons = atomic mass
How many electrons can be in the first energy level? The second? The third? 2, 8, 8 18 total spots
Carbohydrates: what is glucose? Monosaccharide. Glucose is commonly found in blood of animals; energy source to cells.
Carbohydrates: what is fructose? Monosaccharide: Fructose is commonly found in fruit.
Carbohydrates: what is sucrose? -Disaccharides: Sucrose is composed of glucose and fructose and is transported within plants.
Carbohydrates: what are monosaccharides? Monosaccharides are simple sugars with a carbon backbone. include glucose, fructose
Carbohydrates: what are disaccharides? Contain 2 joined monosaccharides - Sucrose is composed of glucose and fructose and is transported within plants.
Carbohydrates: what are polysaccharides? Polysaccharides are chains of glucose molecules or modified glucose molecules - Starch is straight chain of glucose molecules with few side branches.
Carbohydrates: what is starch? Polysaccharides: Starch is straight chain of glucose molecules with few side branches.
Lipid Large molecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with some oxygen. Examples = Fats, oils, waxes - Insoluble in water because their molecules are nonpolar and not attracted by water molecules.
Protein: what are they made up of? Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
Protein: what are the basic building blocks of proteins? amino acids. 20 common amino acids that can make thousands of proteins
Protein: examples in the body Structural proteins include keratin, which makes up hair and nails, and collagen fibers, which support many organs.
Protein: enzymes - Enzymes are proteins that act as organic catalysts to speed chemical reactions within cells.
Protein: insulin - Insulin protein is a hormone that regulates glucose content of blood.
Protein: peptide bonds - Peptide bonds are covalent bonds formed between amino acids
Nucleic Acids: what are they and what are they made up of? - A nucleic acid = a complex biomolecule that stores cellular info in the form of a code - They are polymers made of smaller subunits called nucleotides
Nucleic Acids: how are they arranged? - Arranged in 3 groups: nitrogen base, simple sugar, phosphate group
Nucleic Acids: example Example = DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a nucleic acid that contains the instructions to form all of an organism’s proteins!
What are the four organic molecules? Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Cohesion vs Adhesion? Cohesion: Attracted to itself Adhesion: Attracted to other materials
Enzymes: -Enzymes speed up chemical reactions - Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction. - REUSABLE - Most are proteins - Enzymes are denatured by temperature or pH - Enzymes are used all over my body.
Prokaryote: A. cells are less complex, B. Unicellular, C. no nucleus & no membrane-bound organelles, D. Cell wall surrounding cell membrane & single, looped chromosome (genetic material) in cytoplasm, E. Bacteria (There is no organelles that just Prokaryotes have.)
Eukaryote: A. More complex cells B. Includes unicellular & multicellular organisms C. Have a true nucleus & membrane-bound organelles E. Eukaryotes include plant cells, animal cells, fungi, algae, & protists
What are organelles? Organelles are internal structures in cell’s that perform specific functions (especially in Eukaryotes)
Characteristics of Living things: Organism must have ALL EIGHT characteristics! - made up of one or more cells. - displays organization. - grows and develops. - reproduces. - responds to stimuli. - requires energy. - maintains homeostasis. - adaptations evolve over time.
Difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory A hypothesis is an educated guess that could be found right or wrong after testing. A scientific theory is a hypothesis that was verified as true after study, and is a scientifically accepted fact that could still be proven wrong.
What is homeostasis? Examples? Maintaining homeostasis is a characteristic of life. It means to regulate the body’s conditions so that it stays steady and has equilibrium. Ex. regulating body temperature by sweating
Abiotic factors: nonliving parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the ecosystems functioning. Ex. rain, pollution, pH, soil, sunlight
BIotic factors: Biotic: living parts of the ecosystem Ex. predation, disease, parasites, plants
What is a molecule? a group of organisms bonded together
What is an ion? an atom or molecule with a charge, because the number of electrons is not equal to the number of protons.
Covalent bond: When two atoms bond by sharing electrons.
Ionic bond: Ionic---When two atoms that have opposite charges (+/-) bond due to this attraction. Atoms that have charges are known as ions.
Polar bond: when atoms form covalent bonds and they do not share the electrons equally.
Characteristics of Water: - Water is a polar molecule; it has a positive end and a negative end - This makes water attract other water molecules. - Cohesive and adhesive
What is selectively permeable? function of the cell membrane that lets certain things pass through the membrane by diffusion in active transport but keeps other things out
Cell membrane: what it's made of and its characteristics Phospholipids and proteins.
What does it mean to have a phospholipid bilayer? This makes the cell membrane selectively permeable. 1 negative polar hydrophilic head, 2 hydrophobic nonpolar tails
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell: Just Plant Cell: Cell Wall, Chloroplast, Plastid Just Animal Cell: Centriole, Cilia, Flagella
Created by: *BROOKE*