Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Bio MIdterm 3

Cellular Respiration Equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 =6CO2 + 6H2O
Cellular Respiration Stage 1 Glycolysis
Cellular Respiration Stage 2 Preparation Reaction
Cellular Respiration Stage 3 Citric Acid Cycle
Cellular Respiration Stage 4 Oxidation Phosphorylation
Glycolysis Glucose is split int 2 pyruvate molecules
Location of Glycolysis Occurs in Cytosol
Phase 1 of Glycolysis Energy Investment
Energy Investment 2ATP is hydrolyzed to create fructose-1 and 6 biphosphate
Phase 2 of Glycolysis Clevage
Clevage 6 carbons broken into 2 3-carbon molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
Phase 3 of Glycolysis Energy Liberation
Energy Liberation and Output 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules broken into 2 pyruvate producing 2NADH2 +2ATP
Preparation Reaction and Output Breakdown of pyruvate and transported to the mitochondrial matrix, one molecule of CO2 removed from each pyruvate; remaining acetyl group is attached to a CoA to make acetyl CoA; 1 NADH2 is made from each pyruvate
Location of Preparation Reaction Occurs in Mitochondrial Matrix
Citric Acid Cycle a series of chemical reactions used to generate energy through the oxidization of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into CO2
Overall Goal of the Citric Acid Cycle 2CO2 are released and high energy electron carriers are produced; OAA is reformed, producing ATP in the process and making more high energy electron carriers
Oxidation Phosphorylation Goal high energy electrons removed from ADH2 and FADH2 to make ATP
Oxidation Phosphorylation electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed from one molecule to the next through redox reactions and the electrons lose energy with each step; glucose and water have been combined to form CO2 and H2O
ETC turns NADH and FADH2 into H2O and ATP
Final Acceptor O2 becomes H2O
Chemiosmosis movement of electrons in the ETC generates H+ electrochemical gradient, as H+ flows back across the membrane, it flows through ATP synthase
Fermentation First step is glycolysis, then animal cells convert pyruvate to lactate, and regenerates NAD+ to keep glycolysis going
Alcohol fermentation Anaerobic carb breakdown pathway that make ATP and ethyl alcohol, occurs in cytoplasm
Alcohol fermentation used in.... used in wine and breads
Lactate Fermentation Anaerobic carbohydrate breakdown pathway that produces ATP and lactate, occurs in muscles
Lactate fermentation used in.... Used in cheeses and pickles
Lactate Fermentation in Muscles ATP is produced primarily by aerobic respiration in red muscle fibers, which sustain activities that require endurance
Photosynthesis equation 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Photosynthesis definition energy within light is captured to synthesize carbs, occurs in cholorplasts
How do pigments work? chloroplasts absorb all color frequencies except green light, which it reflects
photosystem I A light-capturing unit in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
photosystem II One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
Light Reactions occurs in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and converts solar energy to ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process.
Cyclic Only photosytem 1 is envolved, Active reaction center = P700, Electrons travel in cyclic manner, Only ATP is produced, Photolysis is absent
Noncyclic photosystem 1 & 2 are envolved, Active reaction centre = P680, ATP & reduced NADP are produced, Photolysis present, O2 is evolved as a by-product
Light Independent/ Calvin Cycle involves fixation of CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
Carbon Fixation Three molecules of carbon dioxide are added to three molecules of a five-carbon sugar abbreviated RuBP. These molecules are then rearranged to form six molecules called 3-PGA, which have three carbons each
Phases of the Calvin Cycle Carbon Fixation, Energy Consumption and Redox Release of G3P, Regeneration of RuBP
absorption spectrum The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light; also a graph of such a range.
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) A three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intermediate in glycolysis
Function of cell singnaling These molecules recognize and bind to receptors on the surface of target cells where they cause a cellular response by means of a signal transduction pathway
5 ways signals are relayed 1. Direct intercellular signaling 2. Contact-dependent signaling 3. Autocrine 4. Paracrine 5. Endocrine
3 stages of cell signaling 1. Receptor Activation 2. Signal Transduction 3. Cellular Response- Hormone SIgnaling
LIgand Any molecule that binds to a receptor site of another molecule
types of cell surface receptors 1. Ion-channel-linked receptors 2. G-protein linked receptors 3. Enzyme-linked receptors
intracellular receptors Hormones like Estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D
protein kinases An enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group from ATP to a target protein
phosphorylation turns many protein enzymes on and off, thereby altering their function and activity
characteristics of receptor tyrosine kinases enzyme-linked receptors, single-pass membrane proteins, extracellular ligand-binding domain, intracellular kinase domain
G protein-coupled receptor a signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein. Also called a G protein-linked receptor
cAMP A compound formed from ATP that acts as a second messenger.
hormones in multicellular organisms, one of many types of secreted chemicals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells in other parts of the body to change their functioning
epinephrine Raises heart rate, breathing rate, blood sugar, and also lowers blood flow to digestive system
DNA Replication criteria 1. information 2. replication 3. transmission 4. variation
Griffith experiment 2 strands of bacteria (R- harmless ad S- deadly) Heat killed S = harmless Heat killed S + live R = deadly ~showed that bacteria can get DNA through transformation
Avery, McLeod, and McCarty exeriment used Grifith's experiment eliminate protein = mouse dies eliminate RNA = mouse dies eliminate DNA = mouse lives ~showed that DNA (not proteins) can transform the properties of cells, clarifying the chemical nature of genes
Hershey and Chase experiment used 2 radioactive isotopes (sulfur- put in DNA and phosphorous- put in proteins) found radioactive P in the bacteria grown ~DNA was being passed onto the new generation and must be heredity material
Watson and Crick determined the DNA structure was a double helix through their X-ray crystallographic studies
DNA replication process of copying the DNA molecule
structure of DNA phosphate group, pentose sugar (deoxyribose), and nitrogenous bases
Nitrogenous bases are held together by what kind of bond? hydrogen bonds
nucleotides are held together by what kind of bond? covalent bonds
Four features summarize the molecular architecture of DNA 1. double stranded helix 2. uniform diameter 3. right handed twist 4. antiparallel
Five levels of DNA structure 1. nucleotides 2. form a strand 3. double helix 4. chromosomes in association with proteins 5. genome- complete compliment of an organisms genetic material
processes of DNA relipcation conservative and semiconservative
semiconservative less mistakes, contains one template strand and one daughter strand identical to template
step 1 of DNA replication uncoil and pull apart
Step 2 of DNA replication add complementary bases
DNA- A bonds with T
DNA- T bonds with A
DNA- C bonds with G
DNA- G bonds with C
RNA- A bonds with U
RNA- U bonds with A
DNA Polymerase binds to template strand and covalently links nucleotides
DNA helicase used to unwind
DNA topoisomerase alters the super coiled form of a DNA molecule
DNA Primase makes the primer strand
Leading strand will be in the correct orientation
Lagging strand will be in the reverse orientation
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication
Ligase seals okazaki fragments together
Chromosome Compaction DNA is compacted by wrapping itself around a group of proteins called histones, forming a nucleosome
Transcription the info in DNA is transferred to RNA
Central Dogma DNA codes for RNA which codes for proteins
Garrod, Beadle and Tatum's one gene-one enzyme hypothesis the idea that genes act through the production of enzymes, with each gene responsible for producing a single enzyme that in turn affects a single step in a metabolic pathway
gene a section of DNA that codes for a functional product
Stages of Prokayrotic transcription 1. initiation 2. elongation 3. termination
initiation sigma factors cause RNA polymerase to recognize a promoter, DNA strands seperate near a promoter to form an open complex
elongation RNA polymerase synthesis RNA template strand used for RNA synthesis, uracil substituted for thymine
termination RNA polymerase reaches termination sequence causes it and newly made RNA transcript to disassociate form DNA,
Direction of transcription In all cases, synthesis of RNA transcript is 5’ to 3’ and DNA template strand reads 3’ to 5’
Stages of Eukaryotic transcription 1. initiation 2. elongation 3. RNA processing 4. termination
RNA processing Splicing, Capping, Poly A Tail
Splicing removal of introns
Spliceosome Composed of snRNPs
Capping Modified guanosine attached to 5’ end (Binding to ribosome)
Poly A tail 100-200 adenine nucleotides added to 3’ end (Increases stability and lifespan in cytosol)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) translates mRNA into amino acids
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) part of ribosomes
Introns transcribed but not translated
Exons coding sequence found in mature mRNA
Created by: ZebraQueen12



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards