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YR ch 20, 21

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIO 106 UCC

What are pathogens? Organisms that cause disease such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and prions.
What are mutations? Changes in DNA sequence.
What is the immune system made up of? Cells, proteins, lymphatic system and circulatory system.
What are barriers? Skin, mucus membranes, digestive acids, vaginal acids, competing bacteria that work with the body. There is also vomiting, urination, and defecation. Even tears and saliva because they contain lysosyme (kills bacteria)
What is nonspecific defense? Uses phagocytes, natural killer cells, complement system and inflammation to address "general" issues or infections. Ex: rise in temperature from a fever or use of Interferons.
What are interferons? Act like a silent alarm, warning other cells of an infection.
What is specific defense? Helps the body defend against "specific" pathogen aka antigen and mounts an immune response using lymphocytes ( B and T cells) that react using MHC or producing antibodies.
What is a virus? Non-living because they can't reproduce or carry out metabolic processes on their own. Can cause disease and have genetic material when they infect other organisms.
What is a bacteria? Can reproduce. Some bacteria are helpful because they recycle sewage and decompose dead animals.
The type of genetic material a virus has can determine? Its nature and how it's classified.
What are parts of a virus? Genetic material (RNA or DNA) -capside: protein coat -viral envelope: not all viruses have them but those that do may consist of glycoproteins, phospholipids, and proteins that help with infection and infiltration. Ex: AIDS
Viruses are specific about the host cell they infect by? Using "lock and key" method
What are examples of viruses? smallpox, common cold, polio, chickenpox, AIDS
Viruses inject their genetic material or use what else? Endocytosis to get thru the plasma membrane of the host cell.
What are vaccines? Weakened versions of a virus that when injected help mount an immune response from the body.EX: smallpox
What are antiviral drugs? They interfere with nucleic acid synthesis of a virus. Ex: AZT is a drug used on HIV.
What are prions? Simpler than virus. Infectious proteins that cause brain degeneration. EX: mad cow disease.
Transmissibility- a factor of how dangerous a pathogen is How easily it passes from person to person
Mode of transmission-a factor of how dangerous a pathogen is How it is transmitted.
Virulence- a factor of how dangerous a pathogen is Damaging effects of a pathogen.
What is lymph? A fluid made of WBC, proteins, fat and some pathogens
What is the lymph flow? Lymph enters lymphatic system and merges into different pathways, from capillaries to ducts, until it flows back into the heart.
1. lymphatic capillaries Where lymph is collected from blood capillaries.
2. lymphatic vessels Lymph is brought here and passed through lymph nodes.
3. lymphatic trunks Lymph is brought through trunks.
4. lymphatic ducts Lymph is deposited back into circulation to the heart from here using the veins of the neck.
What is the thoracic duct (aka left thoracic duct)? It collects lymph from the left side of the body and areas below the thorax beginning at the cisterna chili.
What is the right lymphatic duct (aka right thoracic duct)? Drains lymph from the upper right side of the body (right side of thorax, neck, head, and right arm)
What are lymph nodes? Bean-shaped bodies that occur alongside lymphatic vessel and abundant where those vessels merge to form a lymphatic trunk (groin, armpit, and mammary glands)
What is the function of thymus? It is where T cells mature.
What is the largest lymphatic organ? Spleen (filters the blood, destroys old red blood cells and recycle their parts, provides a reservoir of blood,active in immune response, produces blood cells during fetal development)
What is nonspecific barrier? The skin and mucous membrane.
What are nonspecific defense in regards to the immune response? Monocytes become macrophages and use phagocytosis to engulf general pathogens without discrimination.
What are specific defense in regards to the immune response? Involves immune response which uses lymphocytes to defend against a specific antigen or foreign element.
What is the most important aspects of the immune response? Memory, specificity and ability to differentiate self from non-self.
What are T cells? Responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Uses MHC to deal with cells carrying the wrong genetic ID. Originates in bone marrow and matures in thymus. Attacks self-cells that have been compromised and non-self cells.
What are B cells? Responsible for anti-body mediated immunity. Responds to antigens or pathogens. Originates in bone marrow and matures there. Attacks antigens. Causes the production of antibodies through plasma cells and memory cells.
What is active immunization? Body mounts immune response. Use of vaccines ( people are injected with a weakened form of a pathogen). Has a long term immunity.
What is passive immunization? Body doesn't mount immune response. Involves injection of antibodies rather than natural response. Ex: breast milk. Immunity is temporary.
How does HIV work? By invading helper T-cells which are part of our immune system.
Step 1 of how HIV infects: Invade HIV has a viral envelope. It will use its glycoproteins to bind to the receptor proteins of the host cell and fuse with the plasma membrane to get inside.
Step 2 of how HIV infects: reverse transcriptase Provirus will do the usual steps of DNA to mRNA. Proteins will use proviral genes to make new viral proteins or a new generation of virus offspring that will be released to invade other host cells.
Step 3 of how HIV infects: remain A provirus never leaves the host cell's genome.
Created by: smwondr



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