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Digestive System

Digestive System Quiz (29.1-29.3)

Alimentary canal The digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus.
Saliva A liquid secreted into the mouth that contains mucus and digestive enzymes that start chemical digestion.
Bolus The chewed clump of food that leaves the mouth and travels through the alimentary canal.
Pharynx The upper portion of the throat; Also the junction of the alimentary canal and the trachea.
Esophagus The muscle-encased tube of the alimentary canal that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Peristalsis A series of smooth muscle contractions that push food through the alimentary canal.
Stomach The elastic, muscular sac where some chemical and some mechanical digestion takes place.
Chyme A liquid mixture of food and stomach fluids released from the stomach into the small intestine.
Small intestine The long, narrow tube where digestion is completed and most absorption occurs.
Liver The largest organ in the body. It performs many functions such as producing bile, storing glucose as glycogen, and transforming ammonia to urea.
Gall bladder The organ that stores the bile from the liver and releases it into the small intestine.
Pancreas The gland that makes digestive enzymes and secretes them into the small intestine. It also makes the hormones insulin and glucagon and secretes them into the blood.
Villus (plural: villi) The fingerlike projection of the inner surface of the small intestine that functions in absorbing nutrients.
Large intestine The portion of the alimentary canal from which water is reabsorbed into the body.
Feces The undigested food material and other waste products that exit the body through the anus.
Nutrition The process of how your body obtains raw materials from food.
Digestion The process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
Absorption The stage of digestion wherein certain cells absorb small molecules such as glucose sugar, water, vitamins, and minerals.
Elimination The stage of digestion wherein undigested material passes out of the body
Mechanical digestion The process of breaking food down into smaller pieces by chewing, grinding, and mashing the food.
Chemical digestion The process of digestion wherein chemical bonds within larger food molecules are broken into smaller, different molecules that can be absorbed in the intestines.
Essential nutrients Materials that must be ingested (eaten) because your cells cannot construct them from other molecules. Nutrients that you need!
What are the six types of nutrients found in food? carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
What are the four stages of food processing? ingestion->digestion->absorption->elimination
Polysaccharide Starch molecule made of many saccharide (sugar) molecules
Monosaccharide A single sugar molecule, like glucose or fructose
Kinetic energy The energy of motion
Diffusion The movement of particles from a region in which they are higher in concentration to regions of lower concentration.
Concentration gradient The process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles.
Osmosis The diffusion of a substance through a semipermeable membrane from a more dilute solution (less concentrated) to a more concentrated solution.
Semipermeable membrane A barrier that permits the passage of some substances but not others.
Created by: Shelly Sinclair