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CELL THEORY a theory in biology that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms.
CYTOPLASM the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
ORGENELL any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
PROKARYOTIC CELL are unicellular organisms that lack organelles or other internal membrane-bound structures . Therefore, they do not have a nucleus, but, instead, generally have a single chromosome
EUKARYOTIC CELL A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes
CYTOSKELETON the cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape, and division
NUCLEUS in physical science, an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
RIBOSOME a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
VESICLE a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
MITOCHONDRION in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
VACUOLE a fluid-filled vesicle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells or protozoans
LYSOSOME a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
CENTRIOLE an organelle that is active during mitosis
CELL WALL a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
CHLOROPLAST an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
CELL MEMBRANE a phospholipid layer that covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell’s environment
PHOSPHOLIPID a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
RECEPTOR a specialized sensory nerve that responds to specific types of stimuli
PASSIVE TRANSPORT the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
DIFFUSION the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
OSMOSIS the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
HYPERTONIC describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
FACILITATED DIFFUSION the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
ACTIVE TRANSPORT the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
ENDOCYTOSIS the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
Created by: russell47