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Evol & Classificatio

TermDefinition
Galapagos Islands Darwin conducted much of his research on what islands?
Natural Selection The process by which organisms with traits well-suited to their environment survive and reproduce at a greater rate than less well-adapted organisms in the same environment.
Genetic variation within a species Natural Selection can not occur without....
Adaptation Anything that increases an organism’s chance of survival and reproduction.
Natural Selection According to Darwin, evolution occurs by....
Reproduce at a greater rate than those less suited to the same environment. Organisms well suited to their environment reproduce at a greater or lower rate than those less suited to the same environment???
Gradualism What is the hypothesis that evolution occurs at a slow, constant rate?
Punctuated equilibrium What is the hypothesis that evolution occurs at an irregular rate through geologic time?
The Fossil Record Homologous Structures Vestigial Structures Similarities and differences between DNA and protein sequences. What evidence to we have of evolution?
A common ancestor Homologous structures shared by organisms suggest that they had a what?
Because natural resources are limited. Why do all organisms face a constant struggle for existence?
A common ancestor. The finches that Darwin studied differed in the shape of their beaks. Darwin suggested that the finches all had a what?
The availability of food. Beak shape in the finches is affected by what?
Evolve In order to fit into their habitat, the Galapagos finches had to what?
Divergence The accumulation of differences between species or populations are called what?
Binomial Nomenclature Linnaeus's two-word system for naming organisms is called.....
Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organ isms is known as....
two Latin words What must all scientific names have?
Biologists can communicate regardless of their native languages. An advantage of our scientific naming system is that....
Domain The largest division that a group of organisms can belong to is.....
Cladogram A model used by evolutionary biologists to represent evolutionary history among species using derived characteristics is called a....
Fossil Preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism.
Paleontologist Scientist who studies fossils. Use fossils to infer what past life forms were like and what the environment they lived in was like.
Miller and Urey Conducted and experiment to create organic material by creating a simulation of Earth's early atmosphere.
Adaptive Radiation Process in which a single species has evolved into a variety of organisms.
Convergent Evolution When unrelated organisms resemble one another because they face similar environmental demands.
Coevolution When two species evolve in response to changes in one another.
Punctuated Equilibrium Long, stable periods interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change.
Developmental Genes Most organisms have the same "master control" genes (hox genes). Mutations to these genes will cause changes in body plan.
Homologous Structures Structures that are similar because they were present in a common ancestor.
Vestigial Structures Structures with reduced size or function but was useful in an ancestor.
Physical Behavioral Physiological Adaptations can be.....
Population Organisms that interbreed (same species, same place, same time).
Gene Pool All the genetic info (alleles) in a population.
Relative frequency #of times an allele occurs in a gene pool compared to the number of times other alleles for the same gene occur.
Directional Stabilizing Disruptive Types of Natural Selection
Formation of new species Speciation
Behavioral isolation Geographic isolation Temporal isolation 3 ways populations become reproductively isolated.
Phylogenetic Tree This type of diagram shows relatedness. The closer the branches, the more related the organisms are.
Cladogram Used to show evolutionary relatedness through shared characteristics.
Dichotomous Key A written set of choices that leads to the name of an organism.
Directional Selection Type of selection in which one extreme is favored. The "average" will shift.
Stabilizing Selection Type of selection in which the 'average' survives the best. This reduces variation.
Disruptive Selection Type of selection in which both extremes are favored. The average individual is NOT favored. Can split a population into 2 species.
Gene pool The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population.
Created by: jphokie05