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Chapter 9 microbio


The study of inheritance of heredity that explores Genetics
The sum total of genetic material of an organism Genome
The study of an organisms entire genome Genomic
A discrete cellular structure composed of a neatly packaged DNA molecule Chromosome
Basic Informational packets Genes
The sum of all types of genes constituting an organisms distinctive genetic makeup Genotype
The expression of the genotype that creates certain structures or functions Phenotype
Phosphate Deoxyribose sugar Nitrogeneous based Basic unit of DNA (nucleotide)
Prurines and pyramidines Nitrogeneous bases
One side of the helix runs in the opposite direction of the other: Antiparallel
Synthesizes a new daughter strand of DNA using the parental strands as a template DNA polymerase III
The place in the helix where the strands are unwound and replication is taking place Replication fork
A length of RNA that is inserted initially dieing replication before being replaced by DNA Primer
The stand of new DNA that is synthesized continously in a 5'-3' direction Leading strand
The Strand of new DNA that must be synthesized in short segments Lagging strand
Short segments of DNA synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction which are then sealed together to form 3' to 5' strand
DNA is used to synthesize RNA Transcription
RNA is used to produce proteins Translation
Transports the DNA master code to the ribosome mRNA
Brings amino acids to ribosome dieing translation tRNA
Forms the major part is a ribosome and participate in protein synthesis rRNA
Regulation of gene expression and coiling chromatin miRNA
Sugar is ______ rather than Deoxyribose Ribose
A series of triplet bases that hold the messages of the transcribed mRNA Codons
Contains sequences of bases that for hydrogen with the complementary sections of the same tRNA strand tRNA
Found in the bottom loop of the cloverleaf Designates the specificity of the tRNA and complements the mRNA codon Anticodon
Long polynucleotide molecules Forms complex 3D figure that contributes to the structure and function of ribosomes RRNA
The thing that unwinds or UNZIPS Helicase
How many phosphate groups 1
How many sugar groups 1
How many bases 1
What is the messenger genetic code and how do you do it The message in mRNA, through codons(groups of 3)
A goes to T
U goes to A
G goes to C
DNA will always have the code T
RNA will always have the code U
The second stage of gene expression is what Translation
Another words for proteins Amino acids
Another word for amino acids Ribosomes
What are the three stages of translation Initiation Elongation Termination
The first 3 RNA nucleotides that signal the beginning of the message Start codon
One of the three codons that has no corresponding tRNA and causes translation to be terminated Stop codon NONSENSE CODON
the process of shifting the ribosome down the mRNA strand to read new codons Translocation
Intervening sequences of bases that DON'T code for proteins Introns
Coding regions Exons
Proteins begin to fold up on themselves to achieve their tertiary confirmation even before the peptide chain is released Posttranslational
Found only in bacteria and archaea Coordinated set of genes regulated as a single unit Operons
Put back together An event in which one bacterium donates dBase to another bacterium Recombination
Any organism that contains and expresses genes that originated in another organism TRAITS recombinant
Small circular pieces of DNA that can replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome Plasmids
A mode of genetic exchange in which plasmid or other genetic material is transferred from a donor to a recipient cell via a direct connection Conjugation
The acceptance by a bacterial call of small fragments of solvable DNA from the surrounding environment Transformation.
The process by which bacteriophage serve as a carrier of DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell Transduction.
Any change to the nucleotide sequence in the genome the driving force of evolution Mutation
Small mutations that affect only a single base on a gene Involve addition deletion or substitution of a single base Point mutilation
Changes a normal codon into a stop codon that doesn't code for amino acids Nonsense mutation
Alters a base, but doesn't change the amino acid and has no effect Silent mutation
Occurs when one or more bases are inserted into or deleted from a newly synthesized DNA strand Ex:BIG SENTENCE Frameshift mutations
Created by: CaylahMone



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