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Skeletal System

Bio 231 unit 4 review

Fissure D: narrow slit or cleft P: opening for vessels and nerves
Foramen D: opening or hole P: opening for vessels and nerves
Fossa D: shallow depression P: muscle attachment or articulation
Meatus D: tube-like passageway or opening P: canal/ passage for vessels and nerves
Condyle D: smooth, rounded articular process P: articulation
Epicondyle D: projection above a condyle P: muscle attachment
Head D: rounded articular projection P: articulation
Trochanter D: very large projection P: muscle attachment
Tubercle D: small, rounded projection P: muscle attachment
Tuberosity D: large, roughened projection P: muscle attachment
Skull -8 cranial bones that enclose the brain -14 facial bones -associated bones (middle ear ossicles and hyoid)
Vertebral Column -24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
Thoracic Cage -sternum -24 ribs
Ethmoid bone cribriform foramina allow passage of neurons for olfactory nerve (I)
Sphenoid bone (butterfly) -sella tursica encases pituitary gland -optic canal allows passage of optic nerve (II)
Temporal bone -Internal acoustic meatus allows passage of vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) -bone houses middle and inner ear
External acoustic meatus leads to tympanic membrane
Mandibular fossa articulates with mandible
Mastoid process attachment for some muscles of neck (sternocleidomastoid)
Zygomatic process forms zygomatic arch with temporal process of zygomatic bone
Sella tursica pituitary gland
Optic canal optic nerve (II)
Foramen ovale Trigeminal nerve (V) (mandibular branch)
Foramen rotundum trigeminal nerve (V) (maxillary branch)
Nasal Conchae increase airflow turbulence for moistening, cleaning, and warming
Nasal Complex -paranasal sinuses -nasal conchae -air-filled cavities in facial and cranial bones (open into nasal cavity) -decreases bone weight -add resonance to voice
Respiratory epithelium lining helps humidify and warm air
Superior orbital fissure -oculomotor nerve (III) -trochlear nerve (IV) -trigeminal nerve (V) -abducens nerve (VI) -ophthalmic veins
Hyoid bone -no articulations -provides attachment sites for muscles of tongue and larynx
Vertebral Column functions (4) -provides vertical support -supports weight of the head -transfers weight to appendicular skeleton through lower limbs (hips, thighs, and legs) -protects spinal cord
Intervertebral disc- Annulus fibrosus outer ring of fibrocartilage
Intervertebral disc- Nucleus pulposus gelatinous interior
Curvature abnormalities: Kyphosis exaggerated thoracic curvature (hunchback)
Curvature abnormalities: Lordosis -exaggerated lumbar curvature (swayback) -common for pregnant women
Curvature abnormalities: Scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature
Cervical Vertera most mobile vertebrae
Cervical Vertebra: Spinous process bifid (divided process) often
Cervical Vertebra: Transverse foramina -C1-C6 -vertebral arteries and vein
Cervical Vertebra: Atlas -lacks a body and spinous process -oval sup. facets articulate with occipital condyles (articulation with occipital condyles allows "yes" nodding)
Cervical Vertebra: Axis -dens that articulates with facet on atlas -held in place by transverse ligament -articulation with atlas allows "no" nodding
Thoracic Vertebra: Body -medium and heart shaped -Costal facets or demifacets on body and transverse processes
Thoracic Vertebra: Spinous process long, most project inferiorly
Thoracic Cage: Sternum -Manubrium, body, xiphoid process -2nd rib attaches at sternal angle
Thoracic Cage: Ribs -1-7 are true ribs that attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages -8-12 are false ribs -11-12 are floating ribs that do not attach
Lumbar Vertebra: Body large
Lumbar Vertebra: Spinous process -broad, points, almost points posteriorly -attachment of posterior muscles
Lumbar Vertebra: Transverse process relatively short and thick
Sacrum -5 fused bones -fusion begins shortly after puberty
Sacrum: Articular surface -articulation with os coxae of pelvic girdle -sacroiliac joint
Sacrum: Anterior sacral foramina -allows passage of anterior rami of spinal nerves -posterior rami to the back
Pectoral girdle articulation of clavicle and scapula
Pelvic girdle os coxae composed of the illium, ischium, and pubis
Pectoral girdle: Clavicle -"collarbone" -articulates with the sternum (manubrium) and scapula (acromion)
Pectoral girdle: Scapula (anterior surface) not directly attached to axial skeleton
(Scapula) Acromion process articulates with what? clavicle
(scapula) Glenoid Cavity articulates with what? head of humerus
Scapula (posterior surface) spine is continuous with the acromion
Scapula (lateral surface) -supraglenoid tubercle -infraglenoid tubercle
Humerus (anterior brachium) Head articulates with? -anatomical neck (epiphyseal plate) -surgical neck (fracture site) -deltoid tuberosity -capitulum -trochlea
Humerus(anterior brachium): Capitulum articulates with? head of radius
Humerus (anterior brachium): Trochlea articulates with? trochlear notch of ulna
Humerus (posterior brachium): Radial groove radial nerve and blood vessels follow this groove
Humerus (posterior brachium): Olecranon fossa depression for the olecranon of ulna
Radius and Ulna (antibrachium): Radial notch -notch in ulna that accommodates head of the radius -in pronation, radius crosses over ulna
Radius and Ulna (antibrachium): Interosseus membrane -dense regular connective tissue -helps maintain a fixed separation
Radius and Ulna (antibrachium): Radial tuberosity I- biceps brachii
Hand (manus): Carpals -carpus= wrist -articulates with radius and ulna
Hand (manus): Metacarpals -palmar= palm -dense regular connective tissue -helps maintain a fixed separation
Hand (manus): Phalanges -digitals -only two in the thumb (pollex)
Pelvic Girdle: Os coxae -"hip bones" -illium, ischium, and pubis -fused bones -illium articulates with sacrum at auricular surface (sacroiliac joint)
Pelvic Girdle: Acetabulum articulates with the femur
Pelvic Girdle: Iliac crest O- gluteus maximus
Pelvic Girdle: Greater Sciatic Notch sciatic nerve passes to lower limb
Pelvic Girdle: Ischial tuberosity _"sit bone" -O- several muscle that extend thigh
Pelvis: True pelvis -inlet is space surrounded by pelvic brim -outlet bounded by sacrum, coccyx, ischial tuberosities, and inferior border of pubic symphysis
Pelvis: Outlet -outlet bounded by coccyx, ischial tuberosities, sacrotuberous ligament (STL) and inferior border of pubic symphysis -not just an oval suggested by inferior view -has a bend
Pelvis: Female pelvis -sacrum is usually shorter and wider, has a posterior tilt -body of pubis is longer -subpubic angle is > 100 degrees (90 or less in males)
Femur -articulates with the acetabulum -ligament connects the acetabulum to the fovea (pit) in the femur
Femur: Neck andles into the shaft brining knees closer to midline
Femur: Greater trochanter I- gluteus medius and mininmus (abductors)
Femur: Patellar surface articulates with patella, a sesamoid bone in tendon of the quadriceps femoris
Femur: Gluteal tuberosity and linea aspera I- gluteus maximus (thigh extension)
Femur: Medial and lateral condyles articulates with tibia
Tibia (shinbone) -weight-bearing bone -articulates with femur via medial and lateral condyles
Tibia: Medial malleolus Medial bump on ankle
Fibula -non-weight-bearing bone -lateral to tibia
Fibula: two tibiofibular joints -superior at the fibular articular facet -inferior at fibular notch
Fibula: Lateral malleolus Lateral bump at ankle
Tarsals -7 ankle bones -Talus articulates with tibia and fibula
Tarsals: Calcaneus forms heel
Metatarsals 5 bones of the sole of the foot
Phalanges -14 toe bones -big toe (hallux) has 2 phalanges
Arches of the foot functions -helps support weight of body -blood vessels and nerves are not compressed (pinched) when standing
Structural Joint Classification: Fibrous bones held together by dense regular connective tissue
Structural Joint Classification: Cartilaginous bones are joined by cartilage
Structural Joint Classification: Synovial -Fluid-filled cavity separates the articulating surfaces of the bone -surfaces enclosed within a capsule and the bones are joined by ligaments
Synovial Joint: Articular capsule -Fibrous layer of dense regular connective tissue -attaches bones -ligaments and tendons further strengthen joint
Synovial Joint: Synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid -fluid lubricates cartilage -fluid nourishes cartilage -shock absorber
Synovial Joint: Bursa -Fibrous sac-like structure -contains synovial fluid and lined by a synovial membrane -reduces friction -found where bones, ligaments, muscles, skin, or tendons rub together
Synovial Joint: Fat pads packing material and protection for joint
Knee: Tibiofemoral joint -mostly a hinge joint -limited gliding and rotation -patellofemoral joint also part of the knee joint
Knee: Articular capsule -encloses only medial, lateral, and posterior region -quadriceps femoris tendon passes over anterior surface -patella embedded in tendon
Knee: Collateral ligaments -fibular (lateral) and tibial (medial) collateral ligaments help stabilize the joint
Knee: Tibial collateral ligament -prevents hyperabduction of the leg -attaches to the medial meniscus
Knee: ACL -Anterior cruciate ligament -runs from posterior femur to anterior tibia -prevents femur from moving too far posteriorly relative to the tibia
Knee: Medial and lateral menisci c-shaped fibrocartilage that cushion and stabilize the joint
Knee: Terrible (unhappy) triad -lateral stress -tibial collateral ligament is strained or torn -medial meniscus is injured because it is attached to the tibial collateral ligament -force is transferred to the weak ACL which is torn
Types of joints (motion): Plane -only side-to-side movement are possible -least mobile
Types of joints (motion): Condylar -oval convex and concave articular surfaces -back-and-forth and side-to-side (knuckles)
Types of joints (motion): Saddle saddle-shaped bones allow greater range of movement than condylar joints
Types of joints (motion): Pivot -bone with a rounded surface fits into a ring formed by a ligament and a second bone -movement in one plane
Types of joints (motion): Hinge -Convex surface on one bone fits into concave surface on another bone -movement in one plane
Types of joints (motion): Ball-and-Socket -hip joint and glenohumeral joint -spherical articulating head fits into rounded cup-like socket -movement in three axes
Movements at joints: Flexion angle between articulating bone decreases
Movements at joints: Extension angle between articulating bone increases
Movements at joints: Hyperextension extension past the anatomic position
Movements at joints: Lateral flexion vertebral column moves in either lateral direction along a coronal plane
Movements at joints: Abduction movement of bone away from the midline
Movements at joints: Adduction movement of bone toward ("added") the midline
Movements at joints: Circumduction a continuous movement that combines: -flexion -abduction -extension -adduction
Movements at joints: Depression inferior movement
Movements at joints: Dorsiflexion dorsum of the foot moves closer to the leg
Movements at joints: Inversion turns sole of foot medially (inward)
Movements at joints: Protraction anterior movement from the anatomical position
Movements at joints: Opposition thumb moves across palm
Movements at joints: Pronation rotation of the forearm that turn palm posteriorly
Movements at joints: Supination rotation of the forearm that turn palm anteriorly
Movements at joints: Medial Rotation turns anterior surface of the humerus or femur medially
Created by: yulissalira



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