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Biology Chapter 4.3

Biology Chapter 4.3 Terms and Definitions

phospholipid bilayer a double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
nuclear envelope the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
nucleolus the part of the eukaryotic nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized
ribosome a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein, the site of protein synthesis.
mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
endoplasmic reticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assist in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
Golgi apparatus cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell.
lysosome a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes and that buds from the Golgi apparatus.
cytoskeleton the cytoplasmic network of protein filaments and tubes that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape, and division.
microtubule one of the small, tubular fibers composed of the protein tubulin, that are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, tha compose the cyto skeleton, and that play a role in cell structure and movement.
microfilament a fiber found inside of eukaryotic cells that is composed mainly of the protein actin and that has a role in cell structure and movement.
cilium a hairlike structure arranged in tightly packed rows that projects from the surface of some cells
flagellum a hairlike structure that extends from the cell so that the cell can move
centriole an organelle that is composed of two short microtubules at right angles to each other and that has an active role in mitosis.
Created by: conoverc20