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Biology Chap.4.3-4.4

Basic terms for Honors Biology, Grade 9

The foundation of the cell membrane where phospholipids line up so that their heads point outward towards the water that surrounds them and their tails point inward, resulting in a double layer Phospholipid bilayer
When a cell is about to divide and the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes Chromosome
The double membrane that the nucleus is surrounded by Nuclear Envelope
The denser area of the nucleus where DNA is concentrated when in the process of making ribosomal RNA Nucleolus
The organelles made of protein and RNA that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm Ribosome
The tiny organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Mitochondrion
Called ER, it is a system of membranous tubes and sacs called cisternae that functions primarily as the intracellular highway, a path on which molecules move from part of a cell to another Endoplasmic Reticulum
Another system of flattened, membranous sacs that receive vesicles from the ER containing newly made proteins of lipids Golgi Apparatus
Vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes Lysosome
A network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscross the cytosol Cytoskeleton
Hollow tubes made of a protein called tubulin that consists of two slightly different subunits Microtubule
Finer than microtubules, these long threads of beadlike protection protein actin and are linked end to end and wrapped around each other like two strands of rope Microfilament
Short hair-like structures that extend form the surface of the cell where they assist in movement; these are longer and far less numerous on the cells where they occur Flagellum
Short hair-like structures that extend form the surface of the cell where they assist in movement; these are shorter and present in large numbers on certain cells Cilium
Consist of two short cylinders of microtubes at right angles to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope Centriole
The rigid layer that lies on the outside of the cell's plasma membrane Cell Wall
The large, fluid-filled organelle that stores not only water but also enzymes, metabolic wastes and other materials Central Vacuole
Organelles that, like mitochondria, are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA (includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and leucoplasts) Plastid
Use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water Chloroplast
A system of flattened, membranous sacs Thylakoid
A green pigment within the thylakoids that absorbs light and captures light energy for the cell Chlorophyll
Created by: EmilyEdwards



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