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Unit 3 Biology

Booklet 1

Parasitism A parasite benefits in terms of energy / nutrients, whereas its host is harmed by the loss of these resources.
Symbiotic Relationships Coevolved intimate relationships between members of 2 different species (over millions of years)
Why is this coevolution essential? Because a change in one partner is likely to affect the survival of the other partner in the relationship. Both host and parasite evolve continuously by natural selection in order to keep up with each others adaptations.
What are the 2 types of Symbiosis? Parasitism and Mutualism
Why have parasites not evolved to become lethal and kill the host? The parasite depends on the host for resources, and to complete its life cycle.
What do parasites often have? Parasites often have limited metabolism and cannot survive out of contact with their hosts.
What is an example of a parasite? A Tapeworm (lives inside humans)
How is the tapeworm passed onto its secondary host? In the case of the tapeworm - the eggs of the parasite could pass onto a secondary host through injestion of contaminated faeces / drinking water.
What is the secondary host to the tapeworm? Secondary host
What does parasitic transmission involve? Direct Contact (head louse), Resistant Stages (cat flea), Vectors (plasmodium - causes malaria)
What is mutualism? Where both partner species coevolve and benefit (nutritionally) in the resulting interdependent relationship.
What are some examples of mutualism? Cellulose-digesting microbes (in guts of herbivores), Photosynthetic algae (in the polyps of coral)
What 2 groups can organisms be divided into depending on the structure of their cells? Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.
What is a Eukaryotic cell? A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles - (chloroplasts, mitochondria)
Which Behaviours confer a survival advantage to individuals living in groups? Social hierarchy, Cooperative hunting, Social defense
What is Foraging behaviour? The term given to animals when they search and find food.
What is Altruism? A behaviour which benefits the recipient (increased survival chance) and harms the donor (decreased survival chance)
What are the 2 min types of altruism on social animals? Reciprocal altruism, Kin selection.
What is reciprocal altruism? Involves an individual giving help to another organism at some cost to itself.
Why do individuals choose to help other individuals? Help is given as there is a chance of the favour being returned. (The role of the donor and the recipient will be reversed at some point in the future)
What is the benefit of altruistic behaviour to the survival of the species? Ultruistic individuals survive adverse adverse weather conditions, and have a higher chance of reproductive success
What is Kin selection? The name given to altruistic behaviour towards relatives (share genes)
If individuals are related, what behaviour is common? Behaviour that appears to be ultruistic can be common between a donor and recipient if they are related (Kin)
How does the donor benefit in Kin selection? It will benefit in terms of increased survival chance of shared genes in the recipients offspring / future offspring
What do Kin selection and altruism have an influence on? Survival
How do social insects live? In colonies
What are the most complex kinds of social organisation? 1. Only a few insects / one contribute reproductively (queen and drone bees) 2. Division of labour. 3.Young are cared for by relatives. 4. Parents and offspring live together.
What is the mode of communication in bees? Waggle Dance - informs the direction, quantity, duration of where food is.
What is the benefit to the waggle dance? It minimises energy expenditure of other members of the hive in location of food.
What is the mode of communication in ants? Scent markers (chemical messengers) - lay down trail of scent, ants follow + reinforce scent markers until supply runs out.
what is the benefit of scent markers? It reduces energy spent foraging.
What are Keystone species? Species that play a central and ecologically important stabilising role in an ecosystem.
What would happen if the keystone species was removed? A collapse (decreases biodiversity and stability in the ecosystem)
What is a keystone species? A species which has a big stabalising effect on its environment relative to its numbers.
What is an example of a keystone species? Cellulose-digesting microorganism.
What is service does a keystone provide the ecosystem with? 1) decomposition releases chemicals. 2) enables nutrient recycling
What is Economic Performance (pollinators)? The ability of social insects to pollinate commercial crops.
What is an example of a species with economic importance (pollinators)? Honey bees and wasps.
What service do species with economic importance (pollinators) provide the ecosystem? They pollinate flowering plants, including many food crops. 2) Over 1/3 of global food production is dependant of food pollinators.
What would happen if species with economic importance (pollinators) were to decrease in population? Food security becomes jeopardized.
What is Economic performance (pest control)? The ability of social insects in pest control (biological control)
What is an example of a species with economic importance (pest control) Aphids
What do species with economic importance regarding pest control provide the ecosystem with? Reduces the requirement for expensive pesticides.
Why are some social insects of negative economic performance? Because of the damage they do to crops (eg leaf cutter ants)
What are some examples of primates? Monkeys, Lemurs, apes.
What is one characteristic of primates? The young are born helpless and have long periods of parental care.
What is parental care? Activities performed by parents that will increase the survvial chances of their young.
What are some examples of parental care? Feeding, Cleaning, Protecting from extreme temperature / enemies, removal of parasites, transport.
What is the advantage of having a long period of parental care? Allows learning of complex social behaviour that is essential for survival. (increases survival rate)
What is learned in social groups of primates? Complex social behaviours.
What does the learning of these complex social behaviours promote? Social structure, reduces unnecessary conflict.
How are dominance hierarchies established? By threat and display.
What do dominance hierarchies include? A system of social ranking.
How is access to food determined within a primate group? Whether the primate is dominant or subordinate
What are the advantages of a dominant individual? They have increased access to mates, food, shelter.
What are alliances? Bonds that are formed between individuals which increase social status.
What behaviours are designed to reduce unnecessary conflict / aggression / tension in a primate social group? Ritualistic display, Alliances, Appeasement behaviour, Facial expressions, Body posture.
What is ritualistic display? A sequence of repeated behaviours used to communicate status in reproductive / territorial situations.
When is ritualistic display used? When 2 social primates find themselves competing for a resource (e.g mates, territory, food)
What is the benefit of ritualistic display? Unnecessary conflict is prevented and energy saved.
What is an example of ritualistic display? Gorilla threat display. (Dominant individuals adopt a posture - often intimidating - which makes them appear larger and stronger.
What is the response of subordinate animals to ritualistic display? Accepts defeat and abandons threat, adopts appeasement behaviour.
What is the importance of alliances? Maintaining and improving position / social status within the dominance hierarchy.
What is the benefit to alliances? Visible allies will reduce the likelihood of aggression and therefore decrease conflict and save energy.
What is grooming? One animal picks plant material / fleas / scabs from fur of another animal. It is a form of reciprocal altruism. Grooming partners come to one anothers aid.
What is appeasement behaviour? Consists of a submissive display by an animal that is the reverse of a threat ritual. The animals body is made to look smaller and unthreatening. Its aim is to reduce aggression.
What are facial expressions used for? Used for communication and to acknowledge status.
What do facial expressions act as a signal for? To emphasise position in a dominance hierarchy and avoid conflict.
What are some examples of facial expressions? Play face, Fear grin, Display face, Excitement, Pouting, Yawning.
What are the external factors that the social behaviour displayed by primates will depend on? Complexity of the primates social structure (group size).
Created by: StudyMore6outof7



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