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Microbio Chapter 8

The sum of All chemical reactions and workings of a cell Metabolism
Synthesis of cell molecules and structures Also known as biosynthesis Anabolism
Breaks the bonds of larger molecules to release energy Catabolism
Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the products or consumed in the reaction Start chemical reaction Catalyst
Are biological catalyst Enzymes
Metabolism accomplishes what Assemble smaller molecules into large macromolecules for the cell,utilizing ATP degrades macromolecules into smaller molecules, a process they yields energy
What are the reaction molecules upon which enzymes act Substrates
_________ binds to substrates and participate directly in Cisneros to the substrate Enzymes
Consist of protein alone Simple enzymes
Contain protein and some other nonprotein molecule Conjugated enzymes (HOLOENZYMES)
The two protein molecules are __________&_________ Simple enzymes & conjugated enzymes
Protein portion of the enzyme Apoenzymes
Nonprotein portion Cofactor
Organic factors Coenzyme
Actual site where the substrate Nimda Active site or catalytic site
Organic compounds that work worth the apoenzyme to alter the substrate Coenzyme
Transfers electrons from one substrate to another and DEHYDROGENASE transfer to hydrogen from one compound to another Oxidoreductases
Transfer hydrogen from one compound to another Transferase
Cleaves bonds on molecules with the addition of water Hydrolase
Adds groups or removes groups from double bonded substrates Lyases
Change a substrate to its isomeric form Isomerase
Catalyze the formation of bonds with the input of ATP and the removal of water Ligases
Transported extracellular extracellularly Breaks down large food molecules or harmful chemicals Exoenzymes
Retained intracellularly and function there Most enzymes of metabolic pathways Endoenzymes
Always present in relatively constant amounts, regardless of the cellular environment Constitutive enzymes
Production is turned on (induced) or turned off (repressed) in response to changes in concentrated substrate Regulated enzymes
Loss of electrons A compound that loses electrons is oxidized Oxidation
Gain of electrons Reduction
Considered ______ or ______ because they contribute to disease Virulence factors, toxins
A molecule that resembles the substrate occupies the active site, preventing the substrate from binding Competitive inhibition
Enzymes have two binding sets A binding site and regulated site Regulated by the binding of molecules other than the substrate to the regulatory site Noncompetative inhibition
Releases energy as they go forward Energy is avaliable for doing cellular work Energetic reactions
Require the addition of energy to move forward Endergenic reactions
Redox reactions always occur in pairs called Redox pairs
What is the most common electron carrier NAD
NAD reduced is what? NADH+H1 or NADH
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor Aerobic metabolism
Organic or inorganic compounds Anaerobic metabolism
Need to know Adenosine Triphosphate
Nitrogen base Adenine
5 carbon sugar Ribose
Adenine Ribose Three phosphate groups bonded to the ribose Adenosine Triphosphate
Generation of ATP through a transfer of a phosphate group from a phosphorylated compound directed to ADP Substrate level phosphorylation
A series of redox reactions occurring during the final phase of the respite ryann pathway Oxidative phosphorylation
ATP formed through a series of sunlight driven reactions in phototroph Photophosphorylation
What are the the basic catabolic pathways Aerobic respiration , anaerobic respiration , fermentation
Is most commonly used to break down glucose Glycolysis
Series of reactions that convert glucose and CO2 and allows the cell to recover significant amounts of Energy Aerobic respiration
What are the steps to aerobic respiration? Glycolysis The kerbs cycle Electron transport chain
Utilizes glycolysis the kerbs cycle and the electron transport chain •final electron acceptor can be NO3-,SO42-,CO32- Anaerobic respiration
Electron transfer from fuel molecules to oxygen as a final electron acceptor Aerobic respiration
Is enzymatically converted to pyruvic acid Glucose
Utilized in several pathways by many organism Pyruvic acid
Pyruvic acid is the fizzy converted to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) before it enters the ________ ______ Krebs cycle
What are the main products of the Krebs cycle? Reduced NADH and FADH2 2ATP produced through substrate level phosphorylation
Stationed asking the membrane in closet association with the EST carriers Captures released energy from the EST carriers ATP synthase
The coupling of ATP synthesis to electron transport Each NADH that enters the ETS gives rise to 3 ATP molecules Oxidation phosphorylation
As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons hydrogen jobs are actively pumped into the periplasmic slave or the space between the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane Chemiosmosis
Consist of differences in charge between the outside of the membrane (+) and the inside (-) H+ can only diffuse into the membrane through ATP synthase Proton motive force
What is the total production of ATP 40
Aerobic respiration 4 glycolysis 2 Krebs cycle 34 electron transport 2 ATP Expended in early glycolysis MAXIMUM OF 38 ATP PER MOLECULE OF GLUCOSE
Catalyzed by cytochrome oxidase React with oxygen to remove water 2H+ +2e- +1/2O2-->H2O The terminal step
Nitrate reductase catalyze the removal of oxygen from NO3- reducing it to NO2- AND H2O Nitrate and nitrite reduction systems
Takes out nitrogen Takes out oxygen Only wants to have nitrogen gas N2 Denitrification
Yield a small amount of ATP Fermentation
Occurs in yeast Covers pyruvic acid to ethanol Alcoholic fermentation
Pathways are extremely varied Homolactic fermentation Heyerolactic fermentation Acidic fermentation
Lactic acids bacteria reduce pyruvate to Lactic acid only Homolactic fermentation
Glucose us formated to a mixture of lactic acid,acetic acid,and carbon dioxide Heyerolactic fermentation
Breaks down fatty acids joined to glycerol Lipases
Breakdown protein to their amino acid components Proteases
Most catabolic pathways contain strategic molecular intermediates that can be diverted into anabolic pathways Anphibolism
A compound that is the source of another compound Precursor molecule
Pyruvate is a starting point for glucose synthesis Gluconeogenisis
Can be converted into one of several amino acids Acetyl CoA as a precursor
Pathways that synthesis purine and pyramidines originate in the amino acids Precursors to DNA and RNA
Crucial role of glucose in metabolism and energy utilization Carbohydrate biosynthesis
20 amino acids are needed to make Proteins
Proceed only in the presence of sun light Light dependent reactions
Proceed regardless of the lighting conditions Light independent reaction
Produce phosphate in light reaction Through Calvin cycle Photophosphorylation
Occurs in the chloroplast stromal or the cytoplasmic of cyanobacteria The Calvin cycle
Dominant type on earth Occurs in plants algae and cyanobacteria Oxygenic (oxygen releasing) photosynthesis
Occurs in green and purple bacteria that utilize bacteriochlorophyll Anoxygenic photosynthesis
Created by: CaylahMone



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